The author is grateful to Tom Horst, Peter Sullivan, Chenning Tong, George Young, and many colleagues in Penn State's Center for High-Resolution Atmospheric Regional Modeling (CHARM) for valuable discussions that stimulated the development of the ideas in this paper; to Jingyung Wang for expertly, cheerfully, and tirelessly carrying out the HATS analyses; and to the referees for helpful comments. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant ATM-0222421.
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