This work was supported by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (under Grant DE-FG02-90ER61071) and the Air Force Institute of Technology Civilian Institutions program. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. The authors would like to thank Anthony Clough, Eli Mlawer, and Jennifer Delamere for their support and comments as we used their monochromatic radiative transfer code LBLRTM, and Seiji Kato and Howard Barker for many discussions on correlated k-distribution issues in atmospheric science research. The authors would also like to thank the following class participants in The Pennsylvania State University seminar METEO 597A for compiling the profiles of atmospheric gases used in Fig. 4a: Matt Boehm, Brian Etherton, Laura Hinkleman, Urszula Jambor, Mike Jenson, Ricardo Muñoz, Chuck Pavloski, and Manajit Sengupta. Two anonymous reviewers caught inconsistencies in our original manuscript, and we are grateful for their having done so.
Barker, H. W., and Coauthors, 2003: Assesing 1D atmospheric solar radiative transfer models: Interpretation and handling of unresolved clouds. J. Climate, 16 , 2676–2699.
Clough, S. A., , and M. J. Iacono, 1995: Line-by-line calculation of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates, 2, Application to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and the halocarbons. J. Geophys. Res, 100 , 16519–16535.
Clough, S. A., , M. J. Iacono, , and J-L. Moncet, 1992: Line-by-line calculation of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: Application to water vapor. J. Geophys. Res, 97 , 15761–15785.
Fu, Q., , and K. N. Liou, 1992: On the correlated k-distribution method for radiative transfer in non-homogeneous atmospheres. J. Atmos. Sci, 49 , 2139–2156.
Kato, S., , T. P. Ackerman, , J. H. Mather, , and E. E. Clothiaux, 1999: The k-distribution method and correlated-k approximation for a shortwave radiative transfer model. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 62 , 109–121.
Kurucz, R. L., 1992: Synthetic infrared spectra. Infrared Solar Physics: Proceedings of the 154th IAU Symposium, D. M. Rabin and J. T. Jeffries, Eds., Kluwer Academic, 523–531.
Lacis, A. A., , and V. Oinas, 1991: A description of the correlated k distribution method for modeling nongray gaseous absorption, thermal emission, and multiple scattering in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres. J. Geophys. Res, 96 (D5) 9027–9063.
McClatchey, R. A., , R. W. Fenn, , J. E. A. Selby, , F. E. Volz, , and J. S. Garing, 1972: Optical properties of the atmosphere. 3d ed. AFCRL-72-0497, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, MA, 108 pp.
Mlawer, E. J., , and S. A. Clough, 1997: On the extension of rapid radiative transfer model to the shortwave region. Proc. Sixth Amospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, San Antonio, TX, U.S. Department of Energy, CONF-9603149, 223–226.
Mlawer, E. J., , and S. A. Clough, 1998: Shortwave and longwave enhancements in the rapid radiative transfer model. Proc. Seventh Amospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, San Antonio, TX, U.S. Department of Energy, CONF-970365, 409–413.
Modest, M. F., 2003: Narrow-band and full-spectrum k-distributions for radiative heat transfer-correlated-k vs. scaling approximation. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 76 , 69–83.
Modest, M. F., , and H. Zhang, 2002: The full-spectrum correlated k-distribution for thermal radiation from molecular gas-particulate mixtures. ASME J. Heat Transfer, 124 , 30–38.
Rothman, L. S., and Coauthors, 1998: The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 60 , 665–710.
Toon, O. B., , and T. Ackerman, 1981: Algorithms for the calculation of scattering by stratified spheres. Appl. Opt, 20 , 3657–3660.
Wang, A., , and M. F. Modest, 2004: High-accuracy, compact database of narrow-bank k-distributions for water vapor and carbon dioxide. Proc. ICHMT Fourth Int. Symp. on Radiative Transfer, Istanbul, Turkey, ICHMT.
Zdunkowski, W. G., , W-G. Panhans, , R. M. Welch, , and G. J. Korb, 1982: A radiation scheme for circulation and climate models. Contrib. Atmos. Phys, 55 , 215–238.