This research was supported by NOAA Grant GC01-351 from the Office of Global Programs and by NSF Grant EPS-01322899. We thank Paul Ciesielski for providing the gridded sounding data and Tetsuo Nakazawa for providing the satellite data. We also thank Kerry Emanuel, Jialin Lin, Richard Lindzen, Brian Mapes, Dave Raymond, and an anonymous reviewer for their comments and suggestions.
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