This work was initiated during the 2000 GFD Summer School at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, funded by grants from the National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research. The authors would like to thank Jeff Moehlis for helpful discussions regarding the stability of the solutions in the analytical model. They also thank Ian Kraucunas and an anonymous reviewer for useful comments on this manuscript. This research was supported by NASA Headquarters under the Earth System Science Fellowship Grant NGT5-30446 and the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant DE-FG02-97ER62338.
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