The first author would like to thank the UCAR Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science (SOARS) program and staff for the opportunity to conduct portions of this research using NCAR facilities. Valuable discussions with and reviews from Drs. Rob Cifelli, Larry Carey, Walt Petersen, Timothy Lang, Charles Knight, and Morris Weisman were sincerely appreciated. This research was funded by SOARS, an American Meteorological Society Graduate Fellowship, and NSF Grant ATM-9912051 from the Physical Meteorology program. The CSU–CHILL radar facility is sponsored by the NSF Cooperative Agreement ATM-0118021 and Colorado State University. The S-Pol radar, operated by NCAR, is funded by the NSF.
Bringi, V. N., , and V. Chandrasekar, 2000: Polarimetric Doppler Weather Radar: Principles and Applications. Cambridge University Press, 636 pp.
Bringi, V. N., , K. Knupp, , A. Detwiler, , L. Liu, , I. J. Caylor, , and R. A. Black, 1997: Evolution of a Florida thunderstorm during the convection and precipitation/electrification experiment: The case of 9 August 1991. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 2131–2160.
Browning, K. A., 1964: Airflow and precipitation trajectories within severe local storms which travel to the right of the winds. J. Atmos. Sci., 21 , 634–639.
Browning, K. A., 1977: The structure and mechanisms of hailstorms. Hail: A Review of Hail Science and Hail Suppression, Meteor. Monogr., No. 38, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1–43.
Browning, K. A., , and G. B. Foote, 1976: Airflow and hail growth in supercell storms and some implications for hail suppression. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 102 , 499–533.
Carey, L. D., , and S. A. Rutledge, 1996: A multiparameter radar case study of the microphysical and kinematic evolution of a lightning producing storm. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 59 , 33–64.
Carey, L. D., , and S. A. Rutledge, 1998: Electrical and multiparameter radar observations of a severe hailstorm. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 13979–14000.
Carey, L. D., , and S. A. Rutledge, 2000: The relationship between precipitation and lightning in tropical island convection: A C-band polarimetric radar study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 2687–2710.
Carey, L. D., , S. A. Rutledge, , D. A. Ahijevych, , and T. D. Keenan, 2000: Correcting propagation effects in C-band polarimetric radar observations of tropical convection using differential propagation phase. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 1405–1433.
Cifelli, R., , W. A. Petersen, , L. D. Carey, , and S. A. Rutledge, 2002: Radar observations of the kinematic, microphysical, and precipitation characteristics of two MCSs in TRMM-LBA. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .8077, doi:10.1029/2000JD000264.
Conway, J. W., , and D. S. Zrnic, 1993: A study of embryo production and hail growth using dual-Doppler and multiparameter radars. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 2511–2528.
Cummins, K. L., , M. J. Murphy, , E. A. Bardo, , W. L. Hiscox, , R. B. Pyle, , and A. E. Pifer, 1998: A combined TOA/MDF technology upgrade of the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 9035–9044.
Dye, J. E., , B. E. Martner, , and L. J. Miller, 1983: Dynamical–microphysical evolution of a convective storm in a weakly sheared environment. Part I: Microphysical observations and interpretation. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 2083–2096.
Foote, G. B., , and H. W. Frank, 1983: Case study of a hailstorm in Colorado. Part III: Airflow from triple Doppler measurements. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 686–707.
Gal-Chen, T., 1982: Errors in fixed and moving frames of reference. Applications for conventional and Doppler radar analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 2279–2300.
Hall, M. P. M., , J. W. F. Goddard, , and S. M. Cherry, 1984: Identification of hydrometeors and other targets by dual-polarization radar. Radio Sci., 19 , 132–140.
Herzegh, P. H., , and A. R. Jameson, 1992: Observing precipitation through dual-polarization radar measurements. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73 , 1365–1374.
Hubbert, J., , and V. N. Bringi, 1995: An iterative filtering technique for the analysis of copolar differential phase and dual-frequency radar measurements. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 12 , 643–648.
Hubbert, J., , V. N. Bringi, , L. D. Carey, , and S. Bolen, 1998: CSU–CHILL polarimetric radar measurements from a severe hail storm in eastern Colorado. J. Appl. Meteor., 37 , 749–775.
Illingworth, A. J., , J. W. F. Goddard, , and S. M. Cherry, 1987: Polarization radar studies of precipitation development in convective storms. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113 , 469–489.
Klemp, J. B., , R. B. Wilhelmson, , and P. S. Ray, 1981: Observed and numerically simulated structure of a mature supercell thunderstorm. J. Atmos. Sci., 38 , 1558–1580.
Knight, C. A., , and N. C. Knight, 1973: Hailstone embryos and hailstone models. Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Denver, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77–79.
Lang, T. J., and Coauthors, 2004: The severe thunderstorm electrification and precipitation study. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85 , 1107–1125.
Liu, H., , and V. Chandrasekar, 2000: Classification of hydrometeors based on polarimetric radar measurements: Development of fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy systems and in situ verification. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17 , 140–164.
Miller, L. J., , J. E. Dye, , and B. E. Martner, 1983: Dynamical–microphysical evolution of a convective storm in a weakly sheared environment. Part II: Airflow and precipitation trajectories from Doppler radar observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 2097–2109.
Miller, L. J., , C. G. Mohr, , and A. J. Weinheimer, 1986: The simple rectification to Cartesian space of folded radial velocities from Doppler radar sampling. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 3 , 162–174.
Miller, L. J., , J. D. Tuttle, , and C. K. Knight, 1988: Airflow and hail growth in a severe northern High Plains supercell. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 736–762.
Miller, L. J., , J. D. Tuttle, , and G. B. Foote, 1990: Precipitation production in a large Montana hailstorm: Airflow and particle growth trajectories. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 1619–1646.
Mohr, C. G., , and R. L. Vaughn, 1979: An economical approach for Cartesian interpolation and display of reflectivity factor data in three-dimensional space. J. Appl. Meteor., 18 , 661–670.
Mohr, C. G., , L. J. Miller, , R. L. Vaughn, , and H. W. Frank, 1986: On the merger of mesoscale datasets into a common Cartesian format for efficient and systematic analysis. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 3 , 143–161.
Moller, A. R., , C. A. Doswell III, , M. P. Foster, , and G. R. Woodall, 1994: The operational recognition of supercell thunderstorm environments and storm structures. Wea. Forecasting, 9 , 327–347.
Nelson, S. P., 1987: The hybrid multicellular–supercellular storm—An efficient hail producer. Part II: General characteristics and implications for hail growth. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 2060–2073.
Rotunno, R., , and J. B. Klemp, 1982: The influence of the shear-induced pressure gradient on thunderstorm motion. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110 , 136–151.
Rust, W. D., , and D. R. MacGorman, 2002: Possibly inverted-polarity electrical structure in thunderstorms during STEPS. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 .1517, doi:10.1029/2001GL014303.
Ryzhkov, A. V., , and D. S. Zrnic, 1998: Polarimetric rainfall estimation in the presence of anomalous propagation. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15 , 1320–1330.
Smith, P. L., , D. J. Musil, , A. G. Detwiler, , and R. Ramachandran, 1999: Observations of mixed-phase precipitation within a CAPE thunderstorm. J. Appl. Meteor., 38 , 145–155.
Straka, J. M., , E. N. Rasmussen, , and S. E. Fredrickson, 1996: A mobile mesonet for finescale meteorological observations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 13 , 921–936.
Straka, J. M., , D. S. Zrnić, , and A. V. Ryzhkov, 2000: Bulk hydrometeor classification and quantification using polarimetric radar data: Synthesis of relations. J. Appl. Meteor., 39 , 1341–1372.
Wakimoto, R. M., , and V. N. Bringi, 1988: Dual-polarization observations of microbursts associated with intense convection: The 20 July storm during the MIST project. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116 , 1521–1539.
Weisman, M. L., , and L. J. Miller, 2000: An overview of the severe thunderstorm electrification and precipitation study (STEPS). Preprints, 20th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Orlando, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 654–656.
Wiens, K. C., , S. A. Rutledge, , and S. A. Tessendorf, 2005: The 29 June 2000 supercell observed during STEPS. Part II: Lightning and charge structure. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 4151–4177.
Williams, E. R., 2001: The electrification of severe storms. Severe Convective Storms, Meteor. Monogr., No. 50, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 527–561.