Simona Bordoni provided an analysis of the satellite-retrieved SSTs used in this study. Ongoing conversations on these topics with Bruce Albrecht, Donald Lenschow, Markus Petters, and Gabor Vali greatly enriched our analysis. Gabor Vali and Herm Gerber are thanked for their contribution in the investigations of the occurrence of cloud droplets below clouds. Andrew Ackerman and Verica Savic-Jovcic are appreciated for their constructive suggestions on (earlier) drafts of this manuscript. Rob Wood is thanked for catching an error in the last minute. Discussions with Adam Sobel on the origins of the Θe fluctuations are also gratefully acknowledged. Of course none of this would have been possible if it were not for the competence and professionalism of the NCAR and University of Wyoming staff scientists and technicians who helped maintain and deploy the facilities during DYCOMS-II. In particular both Jörgen Jensen and Alan Schanot are thanked for their contributions to our analysis of the state-variable data especially in relation to possible effects of wetting on instrumental behavior. Support by the National Science Foundation, both through Grant ATM 0097053, and the attention and support of the program officer in charge at that time (Roddy Rogers) is also gratefully acknowledged. For the first author this work is part of the research programme of the Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM), which is financially supported by the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO).
Bretherton, C. S., , and M. C. Wyant, 1997: Moisture transport, lower-troposheric stability, and decoupling of cloud-topped boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 148–167.
Brost, R. A., , J. C. Wyngaard, , and D. H. Lenschow, 1982: Marine stratocumulus layers. Part II: Turbulence budgets. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 818–836.
Comstock, K. K., , C. S. Bretherton, , and S. E. Yuter, 2005: Mesoscale variability and drizzle in southeast Pacific stratocumulus. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 3792–3807.
Duynkerke, P. G., and Coauthors, 2004: Observations and numerical simulations of the diurnal cycle of the EUROCS stratocumulus case. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130 , 3269–3296.
Fairall, C. W., , E. F. Bradley, , D. P. Rogers, , J. B. Edson, , and G. S. Young, 1996: Bulk parametrization of air–sea fluxes for Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 3747–3764.
Faloona, I., and Coauthors, 2005: Observations of entrainment in eastern Pacific marine stratocumulus using three conserved scalars. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 3268–3285.
Han, Q., , R. Welch, , J. Chou, , W. Rossow, , and A. White, 1995: Validation of satellite retrievals of cloud microphysics and liquid water path using observations from FIRE. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 4183–4195.
Jensen, J. B., , S. Lee, , P. B. Krummel, , J. Katzfey, , and D. Gogoasa, 2000: Precipitation in marine cumulus and stratocumulus. Part I: Thermodynamic and dynamic observations of closed cell circulations and cumulus bands. Atmos. Res., 54 , 117–155.
Paluch, I. R., , and D. H. Lenschow, 1991: Stratiform cloud formation in the marine boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 2141–2158.
Perez, J. C., , F. Herrera, , F. Rosa, , A. Gonzales, , M. Wetzel, , R. Borys, , and D. Lowenthal, 2000: Retrieval of marine stratus cloud droplet size from NOAA AVHRR night imagery. J. Remote Sens. Environ., 73 , 31–45.
Petters, M. D., , J. R. Snider, , B. Stevens, , G. Vali, , I. Faloona, , and L. Ryssell, 2005: Accumulation mode aerosol, pockets of open cells, and particle nucleation in the remote subtropical pacific marine boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res., in press.
Sharon, T. M., , B. A. Albrecht, , H. Jonsson, , P. Minnis, , M. M. Khaiyer, , T. M. VanReken, , J. Seinfeld, , and R. Flagan, 2006: Aerosol and cloud microphysical characteristics of rifts and gradients in maritime stratocumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., in press.
Stevens, B., 2000: Cloud-transitions and decoupling in shear-free stratocumulus topped boundary layers. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , 2557–2560.
Stevens, B., , W. R. Cotton, , G. Feingold, , and C-H. Moeng, 1998: Large-eddy simulations of strongly precipitating, shallow, stratocumulus-topped boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 3616–3638.
Stevens, B., and Coauthors, 2003a: Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus—DYCOMS-II. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84 , 579–593.
Stevens, B., and Coauthors, 2003b: On entrainment rates in nocturnal marine stratocumulus. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129 , 3469–3493.
Stevens, B., and Coauthors, 2005a: Evaluation of large-eddy simulations via observations of nocturnal marine stratocumulus. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 1443–1462.
Stevens, B., , G. Vali, , K. Comstock, , R. Wood, , M. C. Zanten, , P. Austin, , C. S. Bretherton, , and D. H. Lenschow, 2005b: Pockets of open cells (POCs) and drizzle in marine stratocumulus. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86 , 51–57.
Vali, G., , R. D. Kelly, , J. French, , S. Haimov, , D. Leon, , R. E. McIntosh, , and A. Pazmany, 1998: Finescale structure and microphysics of coastal stratus. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 3540–3564.
vanZanten, M. C., , B. Stevens, , G. Vali, , and D. H. Lenschow, 2005: Observations of drizzle in nocturnal marine stratocumulus. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 88–106.
Wang, S., , and Q. Wang, 1994: Roles of drizzle in a one-dimensional third-order turbulence closure model of nocturnal stratus-topped marine boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 1559–1576.