We thank Dr. John Nielsen-Gammon and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments that have led to the improvement of our paper. We also appreciate valuable comments and suggestions provided by Drs. Yoshihisa Matsuda, Toshio Yamagata, Masahide Kimoto, and Ryuji Kimura of University of Tokyo. Discussions with Dr. Takeshi Enomoto of the Earth Simulator Center were also helpful.
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