The daily mean NCEP–NCAR reanalysis were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Diagnostics Center. We thank Dr. A. J. Miller of the Climate Prediction Center at NCEP and Dr. Paul A. Newman of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch (Code 916) at NASA GSFC for producing the stratospheric analyses. We also thank the Goddard DAAC for distributing the data as part of NASA’s Mission to Planet Earth program. The ECMWF ERA-40 data used in this study have been obtained from the ECMWF data server. NH is supported by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Grant UCSIO-CU-02165401-SCF and by a Stork-Doherty Lectureship. Part of the work was done while NH was supported by a Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory postdoctoral fellowship. RKS received support from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. JP’s research is supported by the NASA Climate and NASA Atmospheric Chemistry and Analysis programs. We thank Alan Plumb for a very useful conversation that encouraged us to study the 2002 warming in more detail. We thank Ted Shepherd and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments and suggestions.
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