The authors are especially grateful to P. V. Hobbs and the University of Washington CV-580 staff members for great assistance in data collection. Thanks also to P. K. Shu, H. H. Jones, and team for engineering support. We express our appreciation for graphics support to R. B. Simmon and J. E. Schmaltz (Fig. 1); B. Napper, J. A. O’Leary, K. A. Gammage, and C. L. Ladd (Fig. 2); and J. Riédi for his support of Mgraph software. We also acknowledge size distribution data derived from AERONET sun-photometer measurements at Chesapeake Light Tower and wind information from NOAA buoy stations. This research was supported by funding provided by NASA’s Radiation Science Program, the MODIS Science Team, and the EOS Project Science Office. The study was conducted as part of Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) experiment. We are grateful to the CLAMS science team, especially W. L. Smith and T. P. Charlock, for their support in coordination and planning of the field campaign.
Cox, C., , and W. Munk, 1954a: The measurements of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter. J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 44 , 838–850.
Draper, W. W., , and D. G. Long, 2002: An assessment of SeaWinds on QuikSCAT wind retrieval. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .3212, doi:10.1029/2002JC001330.
Dubovik, O., , B. N. Holben, , T. F. Eck, , A. Smirnov, , Y. J. Kaufman, , M. D. King, , D. Tanré, , and I. Slutsker, 2002: Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 590–608.
Ebuchi, N., , and S. Kizu, 2002: Probability distribution of surface wave slope derived using sun glitter images from Geostationary Meteorological Satellite and surface vector winds from scatterometers. J. Oceanogr., 58 , 477–486.
Fougnie, B., , R. Frouin, , P. Lecomte, , and P Y. Deschamps, 1999: Reduction of sky-light reflection effects in the above-water measurements of diffuse marine reflectance. Appl. Opt., 38 , 3844–3856.
Freilich, M. H., , and R. S. Dunbar, 1999: The accuracy of the NSCAT 1 vector winds: Comparisons with National Data Buoy Center buoys. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 11231–11246.
Gatebe, C. K., , M. D. King, , S. Platnick, , G. T. Arnold, , E. F. Vermote, , and B. Schmid, 2003: Airborne spectral measurements of surface-atmosphere anisotropy for several surfaces and ecosystems over southern Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .8489, doi:10.1029/2002JD002397.
Gordon, H. R., 1997: Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 17081–17106.
Gordon, H. R., , and M. H. Wang, 1994: Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol-optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS—A preliminary algorithm. Appl. Opt., 33 , 443–452.
Guinn Jr., A. J., , G. N. Plass, , and W. Kattawar, 1979: Sunlight glitter on a wind-ruffled sea: Further studies. Appl. Opt., 18 , 842–849.
Hooker, S. B., , and C. R. McClain, 2000: The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data. Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 45, Pergamon, 427–465.
Hooker, S. B., , G. Lazin, , G. Zibordi, , and S. McLean, 2002: An evaluation of above- and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19 , 486–515.
Kaufman, Y. J., , J. V. Martins, , L. A. Remer, , M. R. Schoeberl, , and M. A. Yamasoe, 2002: Retrieval of black carbon absorption from proposed satellite measurements over the ocean glint. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 .1928, doi:10.1029/2002GL015403.
Kleidman, R. G., , Y. J. Kaufman, , B. C. Gao, , L. A. Remer, , V. G. Brackett, , R. A. Ferrare, , E. V. Browell, , and S. Ismail, 2000: Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , 2657–2660.
King, M. D., , M. G. Strange, , P. Leone, , and L. R. Blaine, 1986: Multi-wavelength scanning radiometer for airborne measurements of scattered radiation within clouds. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 3 , 513–522.
Liu, W. T., , W. Q. Tang, , and P. S. Polito, 1998: NASA Scatterometer provides global ocean-surface wind fields with more structures than numerical weather prediction. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25 , 761–764.
Loisel, H., , and A. Morel, 2001: Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case II) waters. Int. J. Remote Sens., 22 , 275–295.
Lyapustin, A., , and T. Z. Muldashev, 1999: Method of spherical harmonics in the radiative transfer problem with non-Lambertian surface. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 61 , 545–555.
Lyapustin, A., , and T. Z. Muldashev, 2000: Generalization of Marshak boundary condition for non-Lambert reflection. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 67 , 457–464.
Morel, A., 1988: Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case-I waters). J. Geophys. Res., 93 , 10749–10768.
Morel, A., , and B. Gentili, 1996: Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote-sensing problem. Appl. Opt., 35 , 4850–4862.
Morel, A., , K. J. Voss, , and B. Gentili, 1995: Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 13143–13150.
Morel, A., , D. Antoine, , and B. Gentili, 2002: Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: Accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function. Appl. Opt., 41 , 6289–6306.
Mueller, J. L., , and R. W. Austin, 1995: Ocean optics protocol for SeaWiFS validation, revision 1. NASA Tech. Memo 104566, Vol. 25, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 66 pp.
Nakajima, T., , and M. Tanaka, 1983: Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere–ocean system. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 29 , 521–537.
Preisendorfer, R. W., , and C. D. Mobley, 1986: Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16 , 1293–1316.
Redemann, J., and Coauthors, 2005: Suborbital measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth and its variability at subsatellite grid scales in support of CLAMS, 2001. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 993–1007.
Rothman, L. S., and Coauthors, 2003: The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 82 , 5–44.
Soulen, P. F., , M. D. King, , S-C. Tsay, , G. T. Arnold, , and J. Y. Li, 2000: Airborne spectral measurements of surface–atmosphere anisotropy during the SCAR-A, Kuwait oil fire, and TARFOX experiments. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 10203–10218.
Schooley, A. H., 1954: A simple optical method for measuring the statistical distribution of water surface slopes. J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 44 , 37–40.
Su, W., , T. P. Charlock, , and K. Rutledge, 2002: Observations of reflectance distribution around sunglint from a coastal ocean platform. Appl. Opt., 41 , 7369–7383.
Wang, M. H., , and S. W. Bailey, 2001: Correction of sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS ocean and atmosphere products. Appl. Opt., 40 , 4790–4798.
Yan, B., , K. Stamnes, , M. Toratani, , W. Li, , and J. J. Stamnes, 2002: Evaluation of a reflectance model used in the SeaWiFS ocean color algorithm: Implications for chlorophyll concentration retrievals. Appl. Opt., 20 , 6243–6259.
Yang, H., , and H. R. Gordon, 1997: Remote sensing of ocean color: Assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance. Appl. Opt., 36 , 7887–7897.
Zhao, F., , and T. Nakajima, 1997: Simultaneous determination of water-leaving reflectance and aerosol optical thickness from Coastal Zone Color Scanner measurements. Appl. Opt., 36 , 6949–6956.
Zibordi, G., , S. B. Hooker, , J. F. Berthon, , and D. D’Alimonte, 2002: Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: A field assessment experiment. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19 , 808–819.