I am grateful to Chris Walker for performing the simulations with the idealized GCM and for providing analyses of observational data with which I verified the scaling estimates of section 3e; to Isaac Held for discussions that helped to clarify commonalities and differences between dynamics in isentropic coordinates and in quasigeostrophic theory; to Tieh-Yong Koh and Peter Haynes for comments on drafts of this paper; and to the Davidow Research Fund for financial support. The balance condition (12) was originally included in a section of a paper jointly authored with Isaac Held and Stephen Garner (Schneider et al. 2003), a section that was later removed to reduce the length of that paper. I thank Isaac Held and Stephen Garner for helpful discussions during the writing of that section.
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