We thank Drs. Sukyoung Lee and Huug Van den Dool for their very beneficial discussions. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. We acknowledge the NOAA Climate Diagnostics Center for providing us with the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis dataset and the NOAA Climate Prediction Center for providing us with the teleconnection indices. This research is partially funded through NSF-CMG Grant DMS-0222133 and NSF Grant ATM-0351044.
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