We have benefited considerably from discussions with and comments from Ernest Agee, Will Cantrell, Charles Doswell, Larry Dunn, Kerry Emanuel, Frédéric Fabry, Robert Fovell, John Horel, Charles Knight, Alex Kostinski, Steven Krueger, James Ladue, Steve Nesbitt, William Rose, Richard Rotunno, Jason Shafer, Raymond Shaw, and Edward Zipser. Jeff Stith and two anonymous reviewers provided comments that improved the manuscript. A comprehensive search of the literature by Katherine Day, formerly of the NOAA Library in Boulder, was helpful in identifying articles that our initial survey did not discover. Photos of mammatus other than those by the authors are published with the permission of Charles Doswell (Figs. 1a and 2d), James Steenburgh (Fig. 2a), Vickie Doswell (Fig. 2b), and Montie Orgill (Fig. 2h). Figure 1b was taken by R. J. Clucas, and is in the public domain. Thanks to Brooks Martner for providing Fig. 3, Ken Sassen for providing Figs. 5 and 7, and Likun Wang for providing Fig. 6. Thanks to David Dowell for sharing his time-lapse movies of mammatus clouds. Much of the work on the IPEX case in section 2d(2), and the early work on this manuscript, was performed during fall 2002 while Schultz was visiting the Department of Meteorology at the University of Utah; their support is gratefully acknowledged. Funding for Schultz and Kanak was provided by NOAA/Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research under NOAA–University of Oklahoma Cooperative Agreement NA17RJ1227, Department of Commerce. Funding was also provided for Kanak by NSF Grant ATM-0135510 and for Straka by NSF Grant ATM-0340639.
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