The authors are grateful to T. Inoue at Meteorological Research Institution, Japan Meteorological Agency for his providing GMS data. TRMM VIRS (1B01) and PR (2A23) data were obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). NOAA-interpolated OLR data and NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data were provided by the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) Climate Diagnostics Center (CDC), Boulder, Colorado, from their Web site at http://www.cdc. noaa.gov/. This research is supported by NOAA’s office of Global Program Grant NA17RJ1228#15, NASA’s Precipitation Program Grant NAG5-13694, and NASA Research Grant NNG04GB97G.
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