The authors are grateful to Thomas Birner at the University of Toronto for his helpful comments and suggestions. The authors also acknowledge three anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments. The data used in this paper were provided by ECMWF, and the GFD-DENNOU Library was used for drawing the figures. This research was mainly performed while the first author was visiting the University of Toronto, and is supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)(2) 12440126 of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. The first author (YT) is supported by Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for Young Scientists. The third author (TGS) is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences, and the Canadian Space Agency.
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