This research has been supported by the Environmental Science Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (Grants DE-FG0398ER62571 and DE-FG02-05ER64035). Data were obtained from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Environmental Science Division. Analysis of the TRMM data was supported by the NASA TRMM Office under grant NAG5-136280682. TRMM data assistance was provided by Yaping Li and especially Chuntao Liu. We gratefully acknowledge many insightful conversations with Dr. Steve Krueger during the early phases of this research. Paul F. Hein assisted generously in the acquisition and interpretation of the MIT radar data.
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