The authors thank the reviewers and editor for their constructive comments on the manuscript. The present article summarizes Ph.D. research work done by the first author within the EUROCS/GCSS project; this project focused on creating a synergy between “explicit convection modelers,” operating high-resolution models CSRMs (i.e., LES and CSRMs), and “subgrid-scale convection parameterizers,” operating LAMs and GCMs. In the parameterization exercise CSRMs play a double role: (i) SCMs and GCMs can be validated against these CSRMs. (ii) Looking carefully at CSRM data through budgets or full-resolution animations is an efficient way to generate new ideas, via the “Aha!”1 mechanism. Many thanks to Brian Mapes whose papers have been a guideline along this study, and to Jun-Ichi Yano for so many fruitful discussions. Thanks to Steve Derbyshire for providing the Met Office CSRM results on the EUROCS “sensitivity to humidity” case. Thanks to Jean-Pierre Chaboureau for his help with the Méso-NH numerical simulation. Thanks to Mark Hyde for improving the English write-up.
Arakawa, A., , and W. H. Schubert, 1974: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment, Part I. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 , 674–701.
Bechtold, P., , E. Bazile, , F. Guichard, , P. Mascart, , and E. Richard, 2001: A mass-flux convection scheme for regional and global models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127 , 869–886.
Bougeault, P., 1985: A simple parameterization of the large-scale effects of cumulus convection. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113 , 2108–2121.
Bretherton, C. S., , J. R. McCaa, , and H. Grenier, 2004: A new parameterization for shallow cumulus convection and its application to marine subtropical cloud-topped boundary layers. Part I: Description and 1D results. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 864–882.
Chaboureau, J-P., , F. Guichard, , J-L. Redelsperger, , and J-P. Lafore, 2004: Role of stability and moisture in the diurnal cycle of convection over land. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130 , 3105–3117.
Derbyshire, S. H., , I. Beau, , P. Bechtold, , J-Y. Grandpeix, , J-M. Piriou, , J-L. Redelsperger, , and P. M. M. Soares, 2004: Sensitivity of moist convection to environmental humidity. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130 , 3055–3079.
Esbensen, S. K., , E. I. Tollerud, , and J-H. Chu, 1982: Cloud-cluster-scale circulations and the vorticity budget of synoptic-scale waves over the eastern Atlantic intertropical convergence zone. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110 , 1677–1692.
Geleyn, J-F., and Coauthors, 1995: Atmospheric parameterization schemes in Météo-France’s ARPEGE N. W. P. model. Proc. ECMWF Seminar on Physical Parameterizations in Numerical Models, Reading, United Kingdom, ECMWF, 385–402.
Gerard, L., 2007: An integrated package for subgrid convection, clouds and precipitation compatible with the meso-gamma scales. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 133 , 711–730.
Gerard, L., , and J-F. Geleyn, 2005: Evolution of a subgrid deep convection parameterization in a limited area model with increasing resolution. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 , 2293–2312.
Gregory, D., , and M. J. Miller, 1989: A numerical study of the parameterization of deep tropical convection. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 115 , 1209–1241.
Gregory, D., , and P. R. Rowntree, 1990: A mass flux convection scheme with representation of cloud ensemble characteristics and stability-dependent closure. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118 , 1483–1506.
Guichard, F., and Coauthors, 2004: Modelling the diurnal cycle of deep convection over land with cloud-resolving models and single-column models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130 , 3139–3172.
Hudlow, M. D., , and V. L. Patterson, 1979: GATE radar rainfall atlas. NOAA Special Rep., U.S. Government Printing Office, 155 pp. [Available from Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402; Stock No. 003-019-00046-2.].
Kain, J. S., , and J. M. Fritsch, 1990: A one-dimensional entraining/detraining plume model and its application in convective parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 2784–2802.
Kessler, E., 1969: On the Distribution and Continuity of Water Substance in Atmospheric CirculationMeteor. Monogr., No. 32, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84 pp.
Khairoutdinov, M., , and D. Randall, 2006: High-resolution simulation of shallow-to-deep convection transition over land. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 3421–3436.
Mapes, B. E., 1997: Equilibrium vs. activation control of large-scale variations of tropical deep convection. The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection, R. K. Smith, Ed., NATO ASI Series, Kluwer Academic, 321–358.
Mapes, B. E., 1998: The large-scale part of mesoscale convective system circulations: A linear vertical spectral band model. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 76 , 29–55.
Moncrieff, M. W., , S. K. Krueger, , D. Gregory, , J-L. Redelsperger, , and W. K. Tao, 1997: GEWEX cloud system study (GCSS) working group 4: Precipitating convective cloud systems. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 831–845.
Pan, D-M., , and D. A. Randall, 1998: A cumulus parameterization with a prognostic closure. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 124 , 949–981.
Randall, D. A., , D-M. P. P. Ding, , and D. G. Cripe, 1997: Quasi-equilibrium. The Physics and Parameterization of Moist Atmospheric Convection, R. K. Smith, Ed., Kluwer Academic, 359–385.
Randall, D. A., , M. Khairoutdinov, , A. Arakawa, , and W. Grabowski, 2003: Breaking the cloud parameterization deadlock. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84 , 1547–1564.
Redelsperger, J-L., , F. Guichard, , and S. Mondon, 2000: A parameterization of mesoscale enhancement of surface fluxes for large-scale models. J. Climate, 13 , 402–421.
Robe, F. R., , and K. A. Emanuel, 1996: Moist convective scaling: Some inferences from three-dimensional cloud ensemble simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 3265–3275.
Siebesma, A. P., , and J. W. M. Cuijpers, 1995: Evaluation of parametric assumptions for shallow cumulus convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 650–666.
Siebesma, A. P., and Coauthors, 2003: A large eddy simulation intercomparison study of shallow cumulus convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 60 , 1201–1219.
Simpson, J., , N. E. Westcott, , R. J. Clerman, , and R. A. Pielke, 1980: On cumulus mergers. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioklimatol., 29 , 1–40.
Tiedtke, M., 1989: A comprehensive mass flux scheme for cumulus parameterization in large-scale models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117 , 1779–1800.
Yanai, M., , and R. H. Johnson, 1993: Impacts of cumulus convection on thermodynamical fields. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, Meteor. Monogr., No. 46, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 39–62.
Yanai, M., , S. Esbensen, , and J-H. Chu, 1973: Determination of bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters from large-scale heat and moisture budgets. J. Atmos. Sci., 30 , 611–627.
Yano, J-L., , W. W. Grabowski, , G. L. Roff, , and B. E. Mapes, 2000: Asymptotic approaches to convective quasi-equilibrium. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126 , 1861–1887.