The authors are very grateful for the insightful suggestions from Dr. John W. Nielsen-Gammon and Dr. Gordon Swaters, the two reviewers of this article. Special thanks also go to Dr. Kaijun Liu for helpful discussion during the preparation of this article. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant ATM-0220009 to Cornell University. The reanalysis data for the SH were provided by the Climate Diagnostics Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and analyzed with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) from the Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies.
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