This paper is based upon a presentation given at the 2006 Chapman Conference on Jets and Annular Structures in Geophysical Fluids in Savannah, Georgia. The study is supported by the NSF Climate and Large-Scale Dynamics Program under Grant ATM-0456157 (under the U.S. CLIVAR Program) and NASA’s Living with a Star Targeted Research and Technology Program under Grant NAG5-13492. The NCEP-NCAR reanalyses come from the NOAA Climate Diagnostics Center from their Web site at http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/. Finally, we would like to thank the reviewers for their helpful guidance during the peer review process.
Baldwin, M. P., , D. B. Stephenson, , D. W. J. Thompson, , T. J. Dunkerton, , A. J. Charlton, , and A. O’Neill, 2003: Stratospheric memory and skill of extended-range weather forecasts. Science, 301 , 636–640.
Black, R. X., , B. A. McDaniel, , and W. A. Robinson, 2006: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling during spring onset. J. Climate, 19 , 4891–4901.
Charlton, A. J., , and L. M. Polvani, 2007: A new look at stratospheric sudden warmings. Part I. Climatology and modeling benchmarks. J. Climate, 20 , 449–469.
Edmon, H. J., , B. J. Hoskins, , and M. E. McIntyre, 1980: Eliassen–Palm cross sections for the troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 2600–2616.
Karpetchko, A., , E. Kyro, , and B. M. Knudsen, 2005: Arctic and Antarctic polar vortices 1957–2002 as seen from the ERA-40 reanalyses. J. Geophys. Res., 110 .D21109, doi:10.1029/2005JD006113.
Limpasuvan, V., , D. W. J. Thompson, , and D. L. Hartmann, 2004: On the life cycle of Northern Hemisphere stratospheric sudden warmings. J. Climate, 17 , 2584–2596.
McDaniel, B. A., , and R. X. Black, 2005: Intraseasonal dynamical evolution of the Northern Annular Mode. J. Climate, 18 , 3820–3839.
Perlwitz, J., , and N. Harnik, 2003: Observational evidence of a stratospheric influence on the troposphere by planetary wave reflection. J. Climate, 16 , 3011–3026.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13 , 1000–1016.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2001: Regional climate impacts of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. Science, 293 , 85–89.
Thompson, D. W. J., , M. P. Baldwin, , and S. Solomon, 2005: Stratosphere–troposphere coupling in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 708–747.
Waugh, D. W., , and P. P. Rong, 2002: Interannual variability in the decay of lower stratospheric Arctic vortices. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80 , 997–1012.
Waugh, D. W., , W. J. Randel, , S. Pawson, , P. A. Newman, , and E. R. Nash, 1999: Persistence of the lower stratospheric polar vortices. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 27191–27202.