The present simulations were done by using MRI/NPD-NHM on the IBM Regatta Parallel Computing System at the Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo. This paper is a part of Wataru Yanase’s Ph.D. thesis submitted to the Department of Earth and Planetary Physics, the University of Tokyo. The authors are grateful to Drs. Bin Wang and Fu Gang and an anonymous reviewer for constructing comments for improving the quality of the manuscript. WY was partly supported by a grant for the 21st Century COE Program “Predictability of the Evolution and Variation of the Multiscale Earth System: An Integrated COE for Observational and Computational Earth Science” from MEXT, and by Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (B) 18340137, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
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