We thank Ian Watterson and two anonymous reviewers for insightful comments and suggestions on an earlier version of the manuscript. This work is partially supported by the NSF, ATM division. EPG also thanks the Fannie and John Hertz Foundation for support.
Barnston, A. G., , and R. E. Livezey, 1987: Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 1083–1126.
Branstator, G., 1995: Organization of the storm track anomalies by recurring low-frequency circulation anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 207–226.
Cash, B. A., , P. Kushner, , and G. K. Vallis, 2002: The structure and composition on the annular modes in an aquaplanet general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 3399–3414.
Edmon Jr., H. J., , B. J. Hoskins, , and M. E. McIntyre, 1980: Eliassen-Palm cross sections for the troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 2600–2616.
Feldstein, S. B., 2000b: The timescale, power spectra, and climate noise properties of teleconnection patterns. J. Climate, 13 , 4430–4440.
Gerber, E. P., 2005: A dynamical and statistical understanding of the North Atlantic Oscillation and annular modes. Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, 252 pp.
Gerber, E. P., , and G. K. Vallis, 2005: A stochastic model for the spatial structure of annular patterns of variability and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 18 , 2102–2118.
Held, I. M., , and M. J. Suarez, 1994: A proposal for the intercomparison of the dynamical cores of atmospheric general circulation models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75 , 1825–1830.
Kidson, J. W., , and I. G. Watterson, 1999: The structure and predictability of the “high-latitude mode” in the CSIRO9 general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 3859–3873.
Nakamura, N., 1993: An illustrative model of instabilities in meridionally and vertically sheared flows. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 357–375.
North, G. R., , T. L. Bell, , R. F. Cahalan, , and F. J. Moeng, 1982: Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal functions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110 , 699–706.
Randel, W. J., , and I. M. Held, 1991: Phase speed spectra of transient eddy fluxes and critical layer absorption. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 688–697.
Robinson, W. A., 1994: Eddy feedbacks on the zonal index and eddy-zonal flow interactions induced by zonal flow transience. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 2553–2562.
Rossby, C. G., 1939: Relations between variation in the intensity of the zonal circulation and the displacements of the semi-permanent centers of action. J. Mar. Res., 2 , 38–55.
Thompson, D. W. J., , J. M. Wallace, , and G. C. Hegerl, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part II: Trends. J. Climate, 13 , 1018–1036.
Vallis, G. K., , E. P. Gerber, , P. J. Kushner, , and B. A. Cash, 2004: A mechanism and simple dynamical model of the North Atlantic Oscillation and annular modes. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 264–280.
Watterson, I. G., 2002: Wave–mean flow feedback and the persistence of simulated zonal flow vacillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 1274–1288.
Watterson, I. G., 2007: Southern “annular modes” simulated by a climate model—Patterns, mechanisms, and uses. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 3113–3131.