The authors thank two anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments on this work. Numerical library ISPACK (Ishioka 2005) is used for the computations. GFD-DENNOU Library (SGKS Group 1995) is used for drawing the figures.
Hasegawa, J., K. Ishioka, and S. Yoden, 2006: Asymmetrization of jet profiles in. β-plane turbulence. IUTAM Symposium on Elementary Vortices and Coherent Structures; Significance in Turbulence Dynamics, S. Kida, Ed., Springer, 207–211.
Huang, H. P., and A. Robinson, 1998: Two-dimensional turbulence and persistent zonal jets in a global barotropic model. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 611–632.
Ishioka, K., 2005: ISPACK-0.71. GFD-Dennou Club (in Japanese). [Available online at http://www.gfd-dennou.org/arch/ispack/.].
Lee, Y., and L. M. Smith, 2007: On the formation of geophysical and planetary zonal flows by near-resonant wave interactions. J. Fluid Mech., 576 , 405–424.
Nozawa, T., and S. Yoden, 1997: Formation of zonal band structure in forced two-dimensional turbulence on a rotating sphere. Phys. Fluids, 9 , 2081–2093.
SGKS Group, 1995: DCL-5.1. GFD-Dennou Club (in Japanese). [Available online at http://www.gfd-dennou.org/library/dcl/.].
Vallis, G. K., and M. E. Maltrud, 1993: Generation of mean flows and jets on a beta plane and over topography. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23 , 1346–1362.