This work is in part funded through the Australian Climate Change Science Program. The author is grateful for support from Kyoto University Active Geosphere Investigations for the 21st Century COE Program (KAGI21) to attend the Chapman Conference.
Ambaum, M. H. P., , B. J. Hoskins, , and D. B. Stephenson, 2001: Arctic Oscillation or North Atlantic Oscillation? J. Climate, 14 , 3495–3507.
Baldwin, M. P., , D. B. Stephenson, , D. W. J. Thompson, , T. J. Dunkerton, , A. J. Charlton, , and A. O’Neill, 2003: Stratospheric memory and skill of extended-range weather forecasts. Science, 301 , 636–640.
Cai, W., , and I. G. Watterson, 2002: Modes of interannual variability of the Southern Hemisphere circulation simulated by the CSIRO climate model. J. Climate, 15 , 1159–1174.
Cai, W., , P. H. Whetton, , and D. J. Karoly, 2003: The response of the Antarctic Oscillation to increasing and stabilized atmospheric CO2. J. Climate, 16 , 1525–1538.
Cash, B. A., , P. J. Kushner, , and G. K. Vallis, 2005: Zonal asymmetries, teleconnections, and annular patterns in a GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 207–219.
Codron, F., 2007: Relations between annular modes and the mean state: Southern Hemisphere winter. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 3328–3339.
Feldstein, S., 1998: An observational study of the intraseasonal poleward propagation of zonal mean flow anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 2516–2529.
Frederiksen, J. S., , and C. S. Frederiksen, 1993: Southern Hemisphere storm tracks, blocking, and low-frequency anomalies in a primitive equation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 3148–3163.
Gerber, E. P., , and G. K. Vallis, 2005: A stochastic model for the spatial structure of annular patterns of variability and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 18 , 2102–2118.
Gerber, E. P., , and G. K. Vallis, 2007: Eddy–zonal flow interactions and the persistence of the zonal index. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 3296–3311.
Gillett, N. P., , T. D. Kell, , and P. D. Jones, 2006: Regional climate impacts of the southern annular mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 .L23704, doi:10.1029/2006GL027721.
Gordon, H. B., and Coauthors, 2002: The CSIRO Mk3 climate system model. Tech. Paper 60, CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, 130 pp. [Available online at www.cmar.csiro.au/e-print/open/gordon_2002a.pdf.].
Kållberg, P., , A. Simmonds, , S. Uppala, , and M. Fuentes, 2004: The ERA-40 archive. ERA-40 Project Series 17, ECMWF, 31 pp. [Available online at www.ecmwf.int/publications.].
Karoly, D. J., 1990: The role of transient eddies in low-frequency zonal variations in the Southern Hemisphere circulation. Tellus, 42A , 41–50.
Kidson, J. W., , and I. G. Watterson, 1999: The structure and predictability of the “high-latitude mode” in the CSIRO9 general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 3859–3873.
Miller, R. L., , G. A. Schmidt, , and D. T. Shindell, 2006: Forced annular variations in the 20th century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report models. J. Geophys. Res., 111 .D18101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006323.
Pook, M. J., , P. C. McIntosh, , and G. A. Meyers, 2006: The synoptic decomposition of cool-season rainfall in the southeastern Australian cropping region. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 45 , 1156–1170.
Reichler, T., , P. J. Kushner, , and L. M. Polvani, 2005: The coupled stratosphere–troposphere response to impulsive forcing from the troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 3337–3352.
Ring, M. J., , and R. A. Plumb, 2007: Forced annular mode patterns in a simple atmospheric general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., in press.
Robinson, W. A., 1994: Eddy feedbacks on the zonal index and eddy–zonal flow interactions induced by zonal flow transience. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 2553–2562.
Seager, R., , N. Harnik, , Y. Kushnir, , W. Robinson, , and J. Miller, 2003: Mechanisms of hemispherically symmetric climate variability. J. Climate, 16 , 2960–2978.
Sen Gupta, A., , and M. H. England, 2006: Coupled ocean–atmosphere–ice response to variations in the southern annular mode. J. Climate, 19 , 4457–4486.
Son, S-W., , and S. Lee, 2005: The response of westerly jets to thermal driving in a primitive equation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 3741–3757.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13 , 1000–1016.
Wallace, J. M., 2000: North Atlantic Oscillation/annular mode: Two paradigms-one phenomenon. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126 , 791–805.
Watterson, I. G., 2000: Southern midlatitude zonal wind vacillation and its interaction with the ocean in GCM simulations. J. Climate, 13 , 562–578.
Watterson, I. G., 2001: Zonal wind vacillation and its interaction with the ocean: Implications for interannual variability and predictability. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 23965–23975.
Watterson, I. G., 2002: Wave–mean flow feedback and the persistence of simulated zonal flow vacillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 1274–1288.
Watterson, I. G., , and M. R. Dix, 2005: Effective sensitivity and heat capacity in the response of climate models to greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 , 259–280.
Watterson, I. G., , and J. Syktus, 2007: The influence of air–sea interaction on the Madden–Julian oscillation: The role of the seasonal mean state. Climate Dyn., 28 , 703–722.
Yu, J-Y., , and D. L. Hartmann, 1993: Zonal flow vacillation and eddy forcing in a simple GCM of the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 3244–3259.