The author is grateful to Mr. John Locatelli for his independent review of samples of the author’s crystal classifications. The data collection by the University of Washington CV-580 research aircraft during IMPROVE was made possible by the National Science Foundation under Grant ATM-9908446. Analysis of the data was supported by the NSC under Grant ATM-0242592 and by NASA under Grant NNG04GD64G.
Brownscombe, J. L., and J. Hallett, 1967: Experimental and field studies of precipitation particles formed by the freezing of supercooled water. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 93 , 455–473.
Cannon, T. W., J. E. Dye, and V. Toutenhoofd, 1974: The mechanism of precipitation formation in northeastern Colorado cumulus. II. Sailplane measurements. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 , 2148–2151.
Choularton, T. W., J. Latham, and B. J. Mason, 1978: A possible mechanism of ice splinter production during riming. Nature, 274 , 791–792.
Choularton, T. W., D. J. Griggs, B. Y. Humood, and J. Latham, 1980: Laboratory studies of riming, and its relation to ice splinter production. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 106 , 367–374.
Coons, R. D., and R. Gunn, 1951: Relation of artificial cloud-modification to the production of precipitation. Compendium of Meteorology, T. F. Malone, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 235–241.
Dye, J. E., and P. V. Hobbs, 1968: The influence of environmental parameters on the freezing and fragmentation of suspended water drops. J. Atmos. Sci., 25 , 82–96.
Goldsmith, P., J. Gloster, and C. Hume, 1976: The ice phase in clouds. Preprints, Int. Conf. on Cloud Physics, Boulder, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 163–167.
Griggs, D. J., and T. W. Choularton, 1983: Freezing modes of riming droplets with application to ice splinter production. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 109 , 243–253.
Hobbs, P. V., and A. J. Alkezweeny, 1968: The fragmentation of freezing water droplets in free fall. J. Atmos. Sci., 25 , 881–888.
Johnson, D. A., and J. Hallett, 1968: Freezing and shattering of supercooled water drops. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 94 , 468–482.
Kolomeychuk, R. J., D. C. McKay, and J. V. Iribarne, 1975: The fragmentation and electrification of freezing drops. J. Atmos. Sci., 32 , 974–979.
Korolev, A. V., M. P. Bailey, J. Hallett, and G. A. Isaac, 2004: Laboratory and in situ observation of deposition growth of frozen drops. J. Appl. Meteor., 43 , 612–622.
Kostinski, A. B., and A. R. Jameson, 1997: Fluctuation properties of precipitation. Part I: On deviations of single-size drop counts from the Poisson distribution. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 2174–2186.
Lawson, R. P., and T. L. Jensen, 1998: Improved microphysical observations in mixed phase clouds. Preprints, Conf. on Cloud Physics, Everett, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 451–454.
Mason, B. J., and J. Maybank, 1961: The fragmentation and electrification of freezing water drops. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 87 , 113–114.
Mossop, S. C., 1978: The influence of drop size distribution on the production of secondary ice particles during graupel growth. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 104 , 323–330.
Mossop, S. C., 1985: Secondary ice particle production during rime growth: The effect of drop size distribution and rimer velocity. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 111 , 1113–1124.
Mossop, S. C., and J. Hallett, 1974: Ice crystal concentration in cumulus clouds: Influence of the drop spectrum. Science, 186 , 632–634.
Murgatroyd, R. J., and M. P. Garrod, 1960: Observations of precipitation elements in cumulus clouds. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 86 , 167–175.
Phillips, V. T. J., A. M. Blyth, P. R. A. Brown, T. W. Choularton, and J. Latham, 2001: The glaciation of a cumulus cloud over New Mexico. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127 , 1513–1534.
Pitter, R. L., and H. R. Pruppacher, 1973: A wind tunnel investigation of freezing of small water drops falling at terminal velocity in air. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 99 , 540–550.
Rangno, A. L., and P. V. Hobbs, 1991: Ice particle concentrations and precipitation development in small polar maritime cumuliform clouds. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 117 , 207–241.
Rangno, A. L., and P. V. Hobbs, 2005: Microstructures and precipitation development in cumulus and small cumulonimbus clouds over the warm pool of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 , 639–673.
Rosenfeld, D., and I. M. Lensky, 1998: Satellite-based insights into precipitation formation processes in continental and maritime convective clouds. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79 , 2457–2476.
Scott, B. C., and P. V. Hobbs, 1977: A theoretical study of the evolution of mixed-phase cumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 34 , 812–826.
Stith, J. L., J. A. Haggerty, A. Heymsfield, and C. A. Grainger, 2004: Microphysical characteristics of tropical updrafts in clean conditions. J. Appl. Meteor., 43 , 779–794.
Stoelinga, M. T., and Coauthors, 2003: Improvement of microphysical parameterization through observational verification experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84 , 1807–1826.
Takahashi, C., and A. Yamashita, 1970: Shattering of frozen water drops in a supercooled cloud. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 48 , 369–372.
Vaughan, H. C., 1954: The spontaneous freezing temperatures of melted snow and of small water drops. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 35 , 52–55.