The author wishes to thank Drs. John Knaff, Greg Holland, Chris Davis, and Russ Elsberry for helpful discussion in interpreting the numerical results. Comments and suggestions from Dr. Hugh Willoughby and other two anonymous reviewers helped improve the manuscript. This study has been supported by NSF Grant ATM-0427128 and ONR Grant 000-14-94-1-0493. Additional support has been provided by the JAMSTEC through its sponsorship of the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) in the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST) at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.
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