This research was supported in part by NSF Grant ATM 97-530093 and NASA Grant NNGO04GP02G with the first author and by the Pratt School of Engineering at Duke University, and by NASA through internal funding of the Rain-Sea Interaction Laboratory at the Wallops Flight Facility.
Best, A. C., 1950: Empirical formulae for the terminal velocity of water drops falling through the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 76 , 302–311.
Consortini, A., C. Innocenti, and G. Paoli, 2002: Estimate method for outer scale of atmospheric turbulence. Opt. Commun., 214 , 9–14.
Guzel, H., and A. P. Barros, 2001: Using acoustic emission testing to monitor kinetic energy of raindrop and rainsplash erosion. Proc. Int. Symp. on Soil Erosion Research for the 21st Century, Honolulu, HI, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 525–528.
Low, T. B., and R. List, 1982a: Collision, coalescence, and breakup of raindrops. Part I: Experimentally established coalescence efficiencies and fragment size distributions in breakup. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 1591–1606.
Low, T. B., and R. List, 1982b: Collision, coalescence, and breakup of raindrops. Part II: Parameterization of fragment size distributions. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 1607–1618.
McFarquhar, G. M., 2004: A new representation of collision-induced breakup of raindrops and its implications for the shapes of raindrop size distributions. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 777–794.
McTaggart-Cowan, J. D., and R. List, 1975a: Collision and breakup of water drops at terminal velocity. J. Atmos. Sci., 32 , 1401–1411.
Prat, O. P., and A. P. Barros, 2007a: Exploring the use of a column model for the characterization of microphysical processes in warm rain: Results from a homogeneous rainshaft model. Adv. Geosci., 10 , 145–152.
Prat, O. P., and A. P. Barros, 2007b: A robust numerical solution of the stochastic collection—Breakup equation for warm rain. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46 , 1480–1497.
Ramanathan, V., P. J. Crutzen, J. K. Khiel, and D. Rosenfeld, 2001: Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle. Science, 294 , 2119–2124.
Testik, F. Y., and A. P. Barros, 2007: Toward elucidating the microstructure of warm rainfall: A survey. Rev. Geophys., 45 .RG2003, doi:10.1029/2005RG000182.
Testik, F. Y., A. P. Barros, and L. F. Bliven, 2006: Field observations of multimode raindrop oscillations by high-speed imaging. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 2663–2668.