The author thanks Drs. Isaac M. Held and Gabriel A. Vecchi for useful discussions and Drs. Held and Geoffrey K. Vallis for comments on the manuscript. Discussions with Drs. L. E. Back, D. S. Battisti, P. Caldwell, D. M. W. Frierson, P. A. O’Gorman, O. M. Pauluis, G. Roe, and M. Zhao, as well as the comments from two anonymous reviewers, are also appreciated. This research was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate and Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, administered by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, under Award NA06OAR4310119 from the NOAA Climate Programs Office, U.S. Department of Commerce, with additional funding from Award NA17RJ2612 from NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce. The author thanks the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory for hosting him during the development of this study. The statements, finding, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NOAA Climate Program Office or the U.S. Department of Commerce.
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