This research has been supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, in part through a Canada Graduate Scholarship to the first author, and by the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences. The authors are grateful to Dr. N. A. McFarlane and Dr. E. Becker for many helpful discussions and to Dr. R. Klein and two anonymous reviewers for helping to improve the manuscript. The first author also acknowledges support from the Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society and Zonta International.
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