This research has been supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, in part through a Canada Graduate Scholarship to the first author, and by the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences. The authors are grateful to Dr. N. A. McFarlane and Dr. E. Becker for many helpful discussions and to Dr. R. Klein and two anonymous reviewers for helping to improve the manuscript. The first author also acknowledges support from the Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society and Zonta International.
Becker, E., , and G. Schmitz, 2002: Energy deposition and turbulent dissipation owing to gravity waves in the mesosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 54–68.
Boville, B. A., , and C. S. Bretherton, 2003: Heating and kinetic energy dissipation in the NCAR community atmosphere model. J. Climate, 16 , 3877–3887.
Bretherton, F. P., 1966: The propagation of groups of internal gravity waves in a shear flow. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 92 , 466–480.
Burkhardt, U., , and E. Becker, 2006: A consistent diffusion–dissipation parameterization in the ECHAM climate model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 1194–1204.
Charney, J. G., , and P. G. Drazin, 1961: Propagation of planetary-scale disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 66 , 83–109.
Gregory, D., , R. Kershaw, , and P. M. Inness, 1997: Parameterization of momentum transport by convection. II: Tests in single column and general circulation models. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123 , 1153–1183.
Hines, C. O., 1997: Doppler-spread parameterization of gravity wave momentum dissipation in the middle atmosphere. Part 1: Basic formulation. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 59 , 371–386.
Hines, C. O., , and C. A. Reddy, 1967: On the propagation of atmospheric gravity waves through regions of wind shear. J. Geophys. Res., 72 , 1015–1034.
Kevorkian, J., , and J. D. Cole, 1981: Perturbation Methods in Applied Mathematics. Applied Mathematics Sciences Series, Vol. 34, Springer-Verlag, 558 pp.
Klein, R., 2000: Asymptotic analyses for atmospheric flows and the construction of asymptotically adaptive numerical methods. Z. Angew. Math. Mech., 80 , 765–777.
Lipps, F. B., , and R. S. Hemler, 1982: A scale analysis of deep moist convection and some related numerical calculations. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 2192–2210.
Lorenz, E. N., 1967: The Nature and Theory of the General Circulation of the Atmosphere. World Meteorological Organization, 161 pp.
Schneider, E. K., , and R. S. Lindzen, 1976: A discussion of the parameterization of momentum exchange by cumulus convection. J. Geophys. Res., 81 , 3158–3160.
Scinocca, J. F., , and T. G. Shepherd, 1992: Nonlinear wave-activity conservation laws and Hamiltonian structure for the two-dimensional anelastic equations. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 5–28.
Shaw, T. A., , and T. G. Shepherd, 2007: Angular momentum conservation and gravity wave drag parameterization: Implications for climate models. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 190–203.
Shaw, T. A., , and T. G. Shepherd, 2008: Wave-activity conservation laws for the three-dimensional anelastic and Boussinesq equations with a horizontally homogeneous background flow. J. Fluid Mech., 594 , 493–506.
Shepherd, T. G., 1990: Symmetries, conservation laws, and Hamiltonian structure in geophysical fluid dynamics. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 32, Academic Press, 297–338.
Vallis, G. K., 2006: Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics: Fundamentals and Large-Scale Circulation. Cambridge University Press, 745 pp.