We are grateful to Isaac Held for his thorough reading and many suggestions on an earlier version of this manuscript, and to the helpful comments of a reviewer, all of which led to a significant improvement of this work. We are also grateful to Alistair Adcroft and Jean Michael Campin for help with the MIT GCM. This work has been partially supported by the NSF, and P.Z-G is also supported by the Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia of Spain under a Ramón y Cajal position and by the program Profesores UCM en el extranjero.
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