Dale Durran and Joachim Kuettner are gratefully acknowledged for helpful discussions. The efforts of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Field Project Support (FPS) and the T-REX staff are greatly appreciated. The primary sponsor of T-REX is the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). We acknowledge also other funding agencies and organizations that have provided funding and in-kind support for various T-REX components including the UK Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC), Met Office UK, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), and the Austrian Science Foundation (FWF). The first and second author, respectively, acknowledge support through ONR PE 0601153N and NSF ATM-0524891. COAMPS is a registered trademark of NRL. The support of Andreas Wieser for DLR lidar observations and lidar analysis software from Ron Calhoun and Christian Kühnlein is acknowledged. The Doppler lidar operated by DLR was leased from Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies and their technical support is acknowledged. We thank Saša Gaberšek for helpful discussions and graphical contributions.
Banta, R. M., , L. D. Olivier, , and J. M. Intrieri, 1990: Doppler lidar observations of the 9 January 1989 severe downslope windstorm in Boulder, Colorado. Preprints, Fifth Conf. on Mountain Meteorology, Boulder, CO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 68–69.
Bond, N. A., , C. F. Dierking, , and J. D. Doyle, 2006: Research aircraft and wind profiler observations in Gastineau Channel during a Taku wind event. Wea. Forecasting, 21 , 489–501.
Bougeault, P., 1983: A non-reflective upper boundary condition for limited-height hydrostatic models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111 , 420–429.
Carney, T. Q., , A. J. Bedard Jr., , J. M. Brown, , J. McGinley, , T. Lindholm, , and M. J. Kraus, 1996: Hazardous mountain winds and their visual indicators. Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular AC00-57, 80 pp.
Cohn, S. A., , W. O. J. Brown, , C. L. Martin, , M. E. Susedik, , G. Maclean, , and D. B. Parsons, 2001: Clear air boundary layer spaced antenna wind measurement with the Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR). Ann. Geophys., 19 , 845–854.
Cuxart, J., , G. Morales, , E. Terradellas, , and C. Yagüe, 2002: Study of coherent structures and estimation of the pressure transport terms for the nocturnal stable boundary layer. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 105 , 305–328.
Darby, L. S., , and G. S. Poulos, 2006: The evolution of lee-wave–rotor activity in the lee of Pike’s Peak under the influence of a cold frontal passage: Implications for aircraft safety. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 2857–2876.
De Wekker, S. F. J., , and S. D. Mayor, 2009: Observations of atmospheric structure and dynamics in the Owens Valley of California with a ground-based, eye-safe, scanning aerosol lidar. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., in press.
Doyle, J. D., , and D. R. Durran, 2007: Rotor and subrotor dynamics in the lee of three-dimensional terrain. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 4202–4221.
Doyle, J. D., , and C. A. Reynolds, 2008: Implications of regime transitions for mountain-wave-breaking predictability. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136 , 5211–5223.
Durran, D. R., 1990: Mountain waves and downslope winds. Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain, B. Blumen Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 59–81.
Durran, D. R., , M-J. Yang, , D. N. Slinn, , and R. G. Brown, 1993: Toward more accurate wave-permeable boundary conditions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 604–620.
Fritts, D. C., , T. L. Palmer, , Ø Andreassen, , and I. Lie, 1996: Evolution and breakdown of Kelvin–Helmholtz billows in stratified compressible flows. Part I: Comparison of two- and three-dimensional flows. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 3173–3191.
Golaz, J-C., , S. Wang, , J. D. Doyle, , and J. M. Schmidt, 2005: COAMPS-LES: Model evaluation and analysis of second-and third-moment vertical velocity budgets. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 116 , 487–517.
Grubišić, V., , and B. J. Billings, 2007: The intense lee-wave rotor event of Sierra Rotors IOP 8. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 4178–4201.
Grubišić, V., and Coauthors, 2008: The Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment: A field campaign overview including observational highlights. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89 , 1513–1533.
Hertenstein, R. F., , and J. P. Kuettner, 2005: Rotor types associated with steep lee topography: Influence of the wind profile. Tellus, 57A , 117–135.
Hodur, R. M., 1997: The Naval Research Laboratory’s Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 1414–1430.
Holmboe, J., , and H. Klieforth, 1957: Investigations of mountain lee waves and airflow over the Sierra Nevada. Final Rep., Contract AF19(604)-728, Dept. of Meteorology, University of California, Los Angeles, 290 pp.
Jiang, Q., , and J. D. Doyle, 2008: Diurnal variation of downslope winds in Owens Valley during the Sierra Rotor Experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136 , 3760–3780.
Kahn, B. H., , W. Chan, , and P. F. Lester, 1997: An investigation of rotor flow using DFDR data. Proc. Seventh Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology, Long Beach, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 206–210.
Klaassen, G. P., , and W. R. Peltier, 1985: Evolution of finite amplitude Kelvin–Helmholtz billows in two spatial dimensions. J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 1321–1339.
Klemp, J., , and R. Wilhelmson, 1978: The simulation of three-dimensional convective storm dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 1070–1096.
Klemp, J., , and D. R. Durran, 1983: An upper boundary condition permitting internal gravity wave radiation in numerical mesoscale models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111 , 430–444.
Lester, P. F., , and W. A. Fingerhut, 1974: Lower turbulent zones associated with mountain lee waves. J. Appl. Meteor., 13 , 54–61.
Louis, J-F., , M. Tiedtke, , and J. F. Geleyn, 1982: A short history of the operational PBL parameterization at ECMWF. Proc. Workshop on Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization, Reading, United Kingdom, ECMWF, 59–79.
Mayor, S. D., , S. M. Spuler, , B. M. Morley, , and E. Loew, 2007: Polarization lidar at 1.54 μm and observations of plumes from aerosol generators. Opt. Eng., 46 , 096201. doi:10.1117/1.2786406.
Mobbs, S. D., and Coauthors, 2005: Observations of downslope winds and rotors in the Falkland Islands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 , 329–351. doi:10.1256/qj.04.51.
National Transportation Safety Board, 1992: Aircraft accident report: Colorado Springs, CO, 3 March 1991. AAR-92-06, PB92-910407, 160 pp.
Pearson, R. A., 1974: Consistent boundary conditions for numerical models of systems that admit dispersive waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 , 1481–1489.
Weissmann, M. D., , G. J. Mayr, , R. M. Banta, , and A. Gohm, 2004: Observations of the temporal evolution and spatial structure of the gap flow in the Wipp Valley on 2 and 3 October 1999. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 2684–2697.
Weissmann, M. D., , A. Dörnbrack, , and J. D. Doyle, 2009: Vorticity from line-of-sight lidar velocity scans. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., submitted.