The author thanks the developers of WACCM (Sassi et al. 2002), who made the model available. The simulation was performed while the author stayed at University of Washington. The author also acknowledges useful comments provided by three anonymous reviewers. The GFD-DENNOU Library was used to draw the figures. This work was supported by the JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) 20244076 and for Young Scientists (B) 20740272.
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