The authors wish to thank Dr. K. Shibata and Dr. S. Yukimoto of the Meteorological Research Institute for providing the MJ98 GCM and their support. We also thank Prof. H. Kanzawa, Dr. H. Nakamura, and Dr. M. Watanabe for their helpful comments and encouragement. This paper was improved thanks to the constructive comments and suggestions from two anonymous reviewers. The Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) was used to draw all the figures in this paper. This study was supported by the 21st Century Center of Excellence (COE) program “Earth Advanced Science Technology Center” and the global COE program “Global Education and Research Center for Earth and Planetary Dynamics” at Tohoku University. Part of this research was carried out using supercomputing resources at Cyberscience Center, Tohoku University.
Alexeev, V. A., P. L. Langen, and J. R. Bates, 2005: Polar amplification of surface warming on an aquaplanet in “ghost forcing” experiments without sea ice feedbacks. Climate Dyn., 24 , 655–666.
Andrews, D. G., and M. E. McIntyre, 1976: Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: The generalized Eliassen–Palm relation and the mean zonal acceleration. J. Atmos. Sci., 33 , 2031–2048.
Caballero, R., and P. L. Langen, 2005: The dynamic range of poleward energy transport in an atmospheric general circulation model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 , L02705. doi:10.1029/2004GL021581.
Dong, B., and P. J. Valdes, 2000: Climates at the last glacial maximum: Influence of model horizontal resolution. J. Climate, 13 , 1554–1573.
Fischer-Bruns, I., H. von Storch, J. F. González-Rouco, and E. Zorita, 2005: Modelling the variability of midlatitude storm activity on decadal to century time scales. Climate Dyn., 25 , 461–476. doi:10.1007/s00382-005-0036-1.
Geng, Q., and M. Sugi, 2003: Possible change of extratropical cyclone activity due to enhanced greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols—Study with a high-resolution AGCM. J. Climate, 16 , 2262–2274.
Hall, N. M. J., B. J. Hoskins, P. J. Valdes, and C. A. Senior, 1994: Storm tracks in a high-resolution GCM with doubled carbon dioxide. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120 , 1209–1230.
Hoskins, B. J., M. E. McIntyre, and A. W. Robertson, 1985: On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 111 , 877–946.
Houghton, J. T., Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, Eds. 2001: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge University Press, 881 pp.
Iwasaki, T., 1989: A diagnostic formulation for wave–mean flow interactions and Lagrangian-mean circulation with a hybrid vertical coordinate of pressure and isentropes. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 67 , 293–312.
Iwasaki, T., 1990: Lagrangian-mean circulation and wave–mean flow interactions of Eady’s baroclinic instability waves. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 68 , 347–356.
Iwasaki, T., 2001: Atmospheric energy cycle viewed from wave–mean flow interaction and Lagrangian mean circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 3036–3052.
Kodama, C., T. Iwasaki, K. Shibata, and S. Yukimoto, 2007: Changes in the stratospheric mean meridional circulation due to increased CO2: Radiation- and sea surface temperature-induced effects. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , D16103. doi:10.1029/2006JD008219.
Lindzen, R. S., and B. Farrell, 1980: A simple approximate result for the maximum growth rate of baroclinic instabilities. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 1648–1654.
Lorenz, D. J., and E. T. DeWeaver, 2007: Tropopause height and zonal wind response to global warming in the IPCC scenario integrations. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , D10119. doi:10.1029/2006JD008087.
Lunkeit, F., M. Ponater, R. Sausen, M. Sogalla, U. Ulbrich, and M. Windelband, 1996: Cyclonic activity in a warmer climate. Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 69 , 393–407.
McCabe, G. J., M. P. Clark, and M. C. Serreze, 2001: Trends in Northern Hemisphere surface cyclone frequency and intensity. J. Climate, 14 , 2763–2768.
Nakamura, H., T. Sampe, A. Goto, W. Ohfuchi, and S-P. Xie, 2008: On the importance of midlatitude oceanic frontal zones for the mean state and dominant variability in the tropospheric circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35 , L15709. doi:10.1029/2008GL034010.
Neale, R. B., and B. J. Hoskins, 2000a: A standard test for AGCMs including their physical parametrizations: I: The proposal. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 1 , 101–107. doi:10.1006/asle.2000.0022.
Neale, R. B., and B. J. Hoskins, 2000b: A standard test for AGCMs including their physical parametrizations: II: Results for the Met Office model. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 1 , 108–114. doi:10.1006/asle.2000.0024.
Shibata, K., H. Yoshimura, M. Ohizumi, M. Hosaka, and M. Sugi, 1999: A simulation of troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere with an MRI/JMA98 GCM. Pap. Meteor. Geophys., 50 , 15–53.
Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, Eds. 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.
Tanaka, D., T. Iwasaki, S. Uno, M. Ujiie, and K. Miyazaki, 2004: Eliassen–Palm flux diagnosis based on isentropic representation. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 2370–2383.
Uno, S., and T. Iwasaki, 2006: A cascade-type global energy conversion diagram based on wave–mean flow interactions. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 3277–3295.
Yin, J. H., 2005: A consistent poleward shift of the storm tracks in simulations of 21st century climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 , L18701. doi:10.1029/2005GL023684.
Yukimoto, S., and Coauthors, 2006: Present-day climate and climate sensitivity in the Meteorological Research Institute coupled GCM version 2.3 (MRI-CGCM2.3). J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 84 , 333–363.