This research was supported by a grant to Yale University from the National Science Foundation (ATM-112354). The numerical simulations were performed using supercomputing allocations granted through the Computer and Information Systems Laboratory (CISL) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The authors wish to thank the two anonymous reviewers, as well as Maarten Ambaum, Richard Rotunno, Robert Wood, Peter Blossey, and Dale R. Durran for their constructive comments.
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