We thank Dr. T. Zhu for providing the high-resolution data for the present study, and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. This work was supported by ONR Grant N000140710186 and NASA Grant NNG05GR32G.
Black, M. L., , J. F. Gamache, , F. D. Marks Jr., , C. E. Samsury, , and H. E. Willoughby, 2002: Eastern Pacific Hurricanes Jimena of 1991 and Olivia of 1994: The effect of vertical wind shear on structure and intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 2291–2312.
Braun, S. A., 2002: A cloud-resolving simulation of Hurricane Bob (1991): Storm structure and eyewall buoyancy. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 1573–1592.
Corbosiero, K. L., , J. Molinari, , A. R. Aiyyer, , and M. L. Black, 2006: The structure and evolution of Hurricane Elena (1995). Part II: Convective asymmetries and evidence for vortex-Rossby waves. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 3073–3091.
Dudhia, J., 1993: A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State–NCAR Mesoscale Model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 1493–1513.
Frank, W. M., 1977: The structure and energetics of the tropical cyclone II. Dynamics and energetics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105 , 1136–1150.
Hack, J. J., , and W. H. Schubert, 1986: Nonlinear response of atmospheric vortices to heating by organized cumulus convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 1559–1573.
Heymsfield, G. M., , J. B. Halverson, , J. Simpson, , L. Tian, , and T. P. Bui, 2001: ER-2 Doppler radar investigations of the eyewall of Hurricane Bonnie during the Convection and Moisture Experiment-3. J. Appl. Meteor., 40 , 1310–1330.
Kieu, C. Q., , and D-L. Zhang, 2008: Genesis of Tropical Storm Eugene (2005) from merging vortices associated with ITCZ breakdowns. Part I: Observational and modeling analyses. J. Atmos. Sci., 65 , 3419–3439.
Kossin, J. P., , W. H. Schubert, , and M. T. Montgomery, 2000: Unstable interactions between a hurricane’s primary eyewall and a secondary region of enhanced vorticity. J. Atmos. Sci., 57 , 3893–3917.
Liu, Y., , D-L. Zhang, , and M. K. Yau, 1997: A multiscale numerical study of Hurricane Andrew (1992). Part I: Explicit simulation and verification. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 3073–3093.
Maclay, K. S., , M. DeMaria, , and T. H. Vonder Haar, 2008: Tropical cyclone inner-core kinetic energy evolution. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136 , 4882–4898.
McBride, J. L., 1981: Observational analysis of tropical cyclone formation. Part III: Budget analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 38 , 1152–1166.
Molinari, J., , and D. Vollaro, 2008: Extreme helicity and intense convective towers in Hurricane Bonnie. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136 , 4355–4372.
Montgomery, M. T., , and R. J. Kallenbach, 1997: A theory for vortex Rossby waves and its application to spiral bands and intensity changes in hurricanes. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123 , 435–465.
Powell, M., , and T. Reinhold, 2007: Tropical cyclone destructive potential by integrated kinetic energy. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88 , 1–14.
Reasor, P. D., , and M. T. Montgomery, 2001: Three-dimensional alignment and corotation of weak, TC-like vortices via linear vortex Rossby waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 2306–2330.
Reasor, P. D., , M. T. Montgomery, , F. D. Marks Jr., , and J. F. Gamache, 2000: Low wavenumber structure and evolution of the hurricane inner core observed by airborne dual-Doppler radar. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 1653–1680.
Tuleya, R. E., , and Y. Kurihara, 1975: The energy and angular momentum budgets of a three-dimensional tropical cyclone model. J. Atmos. Sci., 32 , 287–301.
Wang, Y., 2001: An explicit simulation of tropical cyclones with a triply nested movable mesh primitive equation model: TCM3. Part I: Model description and control experiment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 1370–1394.
Wang, Y., 2002a: Vortex Rossby waves in a numerically simulated tropical cyclone. Part I: Overall structure, potential vorticity, and kinetic energy budgets. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 1213–1238.
Wang, Y., 2002b: Vortex Rossby waves in a numerically simulated tropical cyclone. Part II: The role in tropical cyclone structure and intensity changes. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 1239–1262.
Zhang, D-L., , and C. Q. Kieu, 2006: Potential vorticity diagnosis of a simulated hurricane. Part II: Quasi-balanced contributions to forced secondary circulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 2898–2914.
Zhang, D-L., , Y. Liu, , and M. K. Yau, 2001: A multiscale numerical study of Hurricane Andrew (1992). Part IV: Unbalanced flows. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 92–107.
Zhang, D-L., , Y. Liu, , and M. K. Yau, 2002: A multiscale numerical study of Hurricane Andrew (1992). Part V: Inner-core thermodynamics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 2745–2763.
Zhu, T., , and D-L. Zhang, 2006a: Numerical simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part II: Sensitivity to varying cloud microphysical processes. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 109–126.
Zhu, T., , and D-L. Zhang, 2006b: The impact of the storm-induced SST cooling on hurricane intensity. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 23 , 14–22.
Zhu, T., , D-L. Zhang, , and F. Weng, 2004: Numerical simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part I: Eyewall evolution and intensity changes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 225–241.