HSP would like to thank three anonymous reviewers and A. Friedman for constructive comments and suggestions. Comments from Dr. Inez Fung were particularly helpful. HSP and JC acknowledge support of the Berkeley Atmospheric Science Center Fellowship and the Gary Comer Science and Education Foundation. SWS acknowledges support of the NSERC Discovery Grant.
Chang, E. K. N., 1993: Downstream development of baroclinic waves as inferred from regression analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 2038–2053.
Chang, E. K. N., 2001: GCM and observational diagnoses of the seasonal and interannual variations of the Pacific storm track during the cool season. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 1784–1800.
Chang, E. K. N., , and D. B. Yu, 1999: Characteristics of wave packets in the upper troposphere. Part I: Northern Hemisphere winter. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 1708–1728.
Deng, Y., , and M. Mak, 2005: An idealized model study relevant to the dynamics of the midwinter minimum of the Pacific storm track. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 1209–1225.
Harnik, N., , and E. K. M. Chang, 2004: The effects of variations in jet width on the growth of baroclinic waves: Implications for midwinter Pacific storm track variability. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 23–40.
Manabe, S., , and T. B. Terpstra, 1974: The effects of mountains on the general circulation of the atmosphere as identified by numerical experiments. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 , 3–42.
Nakamura, H., , and T. Sampe, 2002: Trapping of synoptic-scale disturbances into the North Pacific subtropical jet core in midwinter. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 , 1761. doi:10.1029/2002GL015535.
Orlanski, I., , and J. Katzfey, 1991: The life cycle of a cyclone wave in the Southern Hemisphere. Part I: Eddy energy budget. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 1972–1998.
Orlanski, I., , and E. K. M. Chang, 1993: Ageostrophic geopotential fluxes in downstream and upstream development of baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 212–225.
Penny, S., , G. H. Roe, , and D. S. Battisti, 2009: The source of the midwinter suppression in storminess over the North Pacific. J. Climate, 23 , 634–648.
Reynolds, R. W., , N. A. Rayner, , T. M. Smith, , D. C. Stokes, , and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15 , 1609–1625.
Robinson, D. P., , R. B. Black, , and B. A. McDaniel, 2006: A Siberian precursor to midwinter intraseasonal variability in the North Pacific storm track. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L15811. doi:10.1029/2006GL026458.
Shaw, T. A., , M. Sigmond, , T. G. Shepherd, , and J. F. Scinocca, 2009: Sensitivity of simulated climate to conservation of momentum in gravity wave drag parameterization. J. Climate, 22 , 2726–2742.
Simmons, A. J., , and B. J. Hoskins, 1979: The downstream and upstream development of unstable baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 36 , 1239–1254.
Son, S-W., , M. Ting, , and L. M. Polvani, 2009: The effect of topography on storm-track intensity in a relatively simple general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 66 , 393–411.
Vallis, G. K., , and E. P. Gerber, 2008: Local and hemispheric dynamics of the North Atlantic Oscillation, annular patterns and the zonal index. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 44 , 184–212.
Yu, J-Y., , and D. L. Hartmann, 1995: Orographic influences on the distribution and generation of atmospheric variability in a GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 2428–2443.
Zhang, Y. Q., , and I. M. Held, 1999: A linear stochastic model of a GCM’s midlatitude storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 3416–3435.
Zurita-Gotor, P., , and E. K. M. Chang, 2005: The impact of zonal propagation and seeding on the eddy–mean flow equilibrium of a zonally varying two-layer model. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 2261–2273.