The authors are grateful to Joe Tenerelli, Shuyi Chen, and Jim Dudhia, who helped build the model (TMM5) used in this study. We also thank the editor Shigeo Yoden and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful and constructive comments. The FNL data were taken from NCAR’s mass storage system. The use of NCAR’s computing facility is also appreciated. The NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data were taken from NOAA/CDC. This study was partially supported by NSF Grants ATM9912297 and ATM0739402.
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