The authors thank Norm McFarlane for gratefully carefully reading the manuscript and providing helpful suggestions. This research has been supported by the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences.
Dunkerton, T. J., 1981: Wave transience in a compressible atmosphere. Part I: Transient internal wave, mean-flow interaction. J. Atmos. Sci., 38 , 281–297.
Fritts, D. C., , and T. J. Dunkerton, 1984: A quasi-linear study of gravity-wave saturation and self-acceleration. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 3272–3289.
Laprise, R. J., , and W. R. Peltier, 1989: On the structural chracteristics of steady finite-amplitude mountain waves over bell-shaped topography. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 586–595.
Lott, F., , and M. Miller, 1997: A new subgrid-scale orographic drag parameterization: Its formulation and testing. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123 , 101–127.
McFarlane, N. A., 1987: The effect of orographically excited gravity wave drag on the general circulation of the lower stratosphere and troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 1775–1800.
Miles, J. W., , and H. E. Huppert, 1969: Lee waves in a stratified flow. Part 4. Perturbation approximations. J. Fluid Mech., 35 , 497–525.
Miller, P. P., , and D. R. Durran, 1991: On the sensitivity of downslope windstorms to the asymmetry of the mountain profile. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 1457–1473.
Miller, R. L., , G. A. Schmidt, , and D. T. Shindell, 2006: Forced annular variations in the 20th century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report models. J. Geophys. Res., 111 , D18101. doi:10.1029/2005JD006323.
Scinocca, J. F., , and T. G. Shepherd, 1992: Nonlinear wave-activity conservation laws and Hamiltonian structure for the two-dimensional anelastic equations. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 5–28.
Scinocca, J. F., , and N. A. McFarlane, 2000: The parameterization of drag induced by stratified flow over anisotropic orography. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126 , 2353–2393.
Scinocca, J. F., , N. A. McFarlane, , M. Lazare, , J. Li, , and D. Plummer, 2008: The CCCma third generation AGCM and its extension into the middle atmosphere. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8 , 7055–7074.
Shepherd, T. G., 1990: Symmetries, conservation laws, and Hamiltonian structure in geophysical fluid dynamics. Adv. Geophys., 32 , 287–338.
Sigmond, M., , and J. F. Scinocca, 2009: The influence of basic state on the Northern Hemisphere circulation response to climate change. J. Climate, 23 , 1434–1446.
Solomon, S., , D. Qin, , M. Manning, , Z. Chen, , M. Marquis, , K. B. Averyt, , M. Tignor, , and H. L. Miller, Eds. 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.
Sutherland, B. R., 2006a: Internal wave instability: Wave–wave vs wave-induced mean flow interactions. Phys. Fluids, 18 , 074107. doi:10.1063/1.2219102.
Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13 , 1000–1016.
Webster, S., , A. R. Brown, , D. R. Cameron, , and C. P. Jones, 2003: Improvements to the representation of orography in the Met Office Unified Model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129 , 1989–2010.