The authors thank three anonymous reviewers for useful comments and suggestions. This study was conducted under the support of Office of Naval Research Grant N000140810250. The development of the nonhydrostatic version of SEOM was supported by NSF OCE-0622662. The authors thank The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) for constructing useful and user-friendly portal sites and providing the analysis data of operational NWP systems.
Aberson, S. D., 2003: Targeted observations to improve operational tropical cyclone forecast guidance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 1613–1628.
Aberson, S. D., , S. J. Majumdar, , C. A. Reynolds, , and B. J. Etherton, 2011: An observing system experiment for tropical cyclone targeting techniques using the Global Forecast System. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 895–907.
Barkmeijer, J., , R. Buizza, , T. N. Palmer, , K. Puri, , and J.-F. Mahfouf, 2001: Tropical singular vectors computed with linearized diabatic physics. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 685–708.
Bishop, C. H., , B. J. Etherton, , and S. J. Majumdar, 2001: Adaptive sampling with the ensemble transform Kalman filter. Part I: Theoretical aspects. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 420–436.
Bougeault, P., and Coauthors, 2010: The THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 1059–1072.
Buizza, R., , and T. N. Palmer, 1995: The singular vector structure of the atmospheric global circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 1434–1456.
Buizza, R., , R. Gelaro, , F. Molteni, , and T. N. Palmer, 1997: The impact of increased resolution on predictability studies with singular vectors. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123, 1007–1033.
Chan, J. C. L., , and R. T. Williams, 1987: Analytical and numerical studies of the beta-effect in tropical cyclone motion. Part I: Zero mean flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 1257–1265.
Davidson, E. R., 1975: The iterative calculation of a few of the lowest eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of large real-symmetric matrices. J. Comput. Phys., 17, 87–94.
Ehrendorfer, M., , R. M. Errico, , and K. D. Raeder, 1999: Singular-vector perturbation growth in a primitive equation model with moist physics. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 1627–1648.
Farrell, B. F., , and P. J. Ioannou, 1996a: Generalized stability theory. Part I: Autonomous operators. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 2025–2040.
Farrell, B. F., , and P. J. Ioannou, 1996b: Generalized stability theory. Part II: Nonautonomous operators. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 2041–2053.
Fiorino, M., , and R. L. Elsberry, 1989: Some aspects of vortex structure related to tropical cyclone motion. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 975–990.
Harnisch, F., , and M. Weissmann, 2010: Sensitivity of typhoon forecasts to different subsets of targeted dropsonde observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 2664–2680.
Hoskins, B. J., , and M. M. Coutinho, 2005: Moist singular vectors and the predictability of some high impact European cyclones. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 581–601.
Hoskins, B. J., , R. Buizza, , and J. Badger, 2000: The nature of singular vector growth and structure. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 1565–1580.
Iskandarani, M., , D. B. Haidvogel, , and J. P. Boyd, 1995: A staggered spectral element model with application to the oceanic shallow water equations. Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 20, 393–414.
Kim, H. M., , and M. C. Morgan, 2002: Dependence of singular vector structure and evolution on the choice of norm. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 3099–3116.
Kim, H. M., , and B.-J. Jung, 2009: Influence of moist physics and norms on singular vectors for a tropical cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 525–543.
Kwon, Y. C., , and W. M. Frank, 2005: Dynamic instabilities of simulated hurricane-like vortices and their impacts on the core structure of hurricanes. Part I: Dry experiments. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 3955–3973.
Kwon, Y. C., , and W. M. Frank, 2008: Dynamic instabilities of simulated hurricane-like vortices and their impacts on the core structure of hurricanes. Part II: Moist experiments. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 106–122.
Mureau, R., , F. Molteni, , and T. N. Palmer, 1993: Ensemble prediction using dynamically conditioned perturbations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119, 299–323.
Nolan, D. S., , and B. F. Farrell, 1999: Generalized stability analyses of asymmetric disturbances in one- and two-celled vortices maintained by radial inflow. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 1287–1307.
Orr, W. M., 1907: Stability or instability of the steady motions of a perfect liquid and of a viscous liquid. Part I: A perfect liquid. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., 27, 9–69.
Palmer, T. N., , R. Gelaro, , J. Barkmeijer, , and R. Buizza, 1998: Singular vectors, metrics, and adaptive observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 633–653.
Peng, J., , T. Li, , M. S. Peng, , and X. Ge, 2009: Barotropic instability in the tropical cyclone outer region. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135, 851–864.
Peng, M. S., , and C. A. Reynolds, 2006: Sensitivity of tropical cyclone forecasts as revealed by singular vectors. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2508–2528.
Puri, K., , J. Barkmeijer, , and T. N. Palmer, 2001: Ensemble prediction of tropical cyclones using targeted diabatic singular vectors. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127, 709–731.
Schubert, W. H., , M. T. Montgomery, , R. K. Taft, , T. A. Guinn, , S. R. Fulton, , J. P. Kossin, , and J. P. Edwards, 1999: Polygonal eyewalls, asymmetric eye contraction, and potential vorticity mixing in hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 1197–1223.
Wu, C.-C., and Coauthors, 2005: Dropwindsonde Observations for Typhoon Surveillance near the Taiwan Region (DOTSTAR): An overview. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 787–790.
Yamaguchi, M., , and S. J. Majumdar, 2010: Using TIGGE data to diagnose initial perturbations and their growth for tropical cyclone ensemble forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 3634–3655.
Yamaguchi, M., , T. Iriguchi, , T. Nakazawa, , and C.-C. Wu, 2009a: An observing system experiment for Typhoon Conson (2004) using a singular vector method and DOTSTAR data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 2801–2816.
Yamaguchi, M., , R. Sakai, , M. Kyoda, , T. Komori, , and T. Kadowaki, 2009b: Typhoon Ensemble Prediction System developed at the Japan Meteorological Agency. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 2592–2604.
As of February 2011, the horizontal resolution of moist SVs in ECMWF is T42 while that of the forecast model is T639. In the JMA EPS, the horizontal resolution of moist SVs is T63 while that of the forecast model is T319.