Most of the work in this study was carried out during the first author’s Ph.D. study at MIT, where both authors were supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Dept. of Energy, Grant DE-FG02-93ER61677, and by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNG04GF12A. The first author was also supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant 41005028.
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Experiments including the variation of the horizontal averaged surface temperature were also carried out. The horizontal averaged surface temperature shows strong variation only in the sensitivity runs to cdt. In those runs, a weak enough cdt results in strong surface warming, in which the surface latent heat flux becomes much more sensitive to the temperature variation. In that situation, moist physics in the atmosphere should play a more important role, which is out of the scope of this study.