This research was supported by the Typhoon Research Project (2009CB421503) of the National Basic Research Program (the 973 Program) of China, the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC Grant 40875038), and the Social Commonweal Research Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (GYHY200806009).
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MJO- and QBW-scale gyres in this study are the cyclonic circulation identified from the 20-day low-pass and 10–20-day bandpass filtered wind fields, respectively.