The authors thank two anonymous reviewers for comments that improved the clarity and presentation of the paper. The research of AJM is partially supported by Grants NSF DMS-0456713, ONR N00014-08-1-0284, and ONR N00014-11-1-0306. SNS was supported by a NOAA Climate and Global Change Postdoctoral Fellowship, a NSF Mathematical Sciences Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, and a start-up grant from the University of Wisconsin—Madison.
Benedict, J., , and D. Randall, 2009: Structure of the Madden–Julian oscillation in the superparameterized CAM. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 3277–3296.
Biello, J. A., , and A. J. Majda, 2006: Modulating synoptic scale convective activity and boundary layer dissipation in the IPESD models of the Madden–Julian oscillation. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 42, 152–215.
Biello, J. A., , A. J. Majda, , and M. W. Moncrieff, 2007: Meridional momentum flux and superrotation in the multi-scale IPESD MJO model. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 1636–1651.
Bourlioux, A., , and A. J. Majda, 1995: Theoretical and numerical structure of unstable detonations. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 350A, 29–68.
Brown, R. G., , and C. Zhang, 1997: Variability of midtropospheric moisture and its effect on cloud-top height distribution during TOGA COARE. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 2760–2774.
Derbyshire, S., , I. Beau, , P. Bechtold, , J. Grandpeix, , J. Piriou, , J. Redelsperger, , and P. Soares, 2004: Sensitivity of moist convection to environmental humidity. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 3055–3079.
Dunkerton, T. J., , and F. X. Crum, 1995: Eastward propagating 2–15-day equatorial convection and its relation to the tropical intraseasonal oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 100 (D12), 25 781–25 790.
Frierson, D. M. W., , A. J. Majda, , and O. M. Pauluis, 2004: Large scale dynamics of precipitation fronts in the tropical atmosphere: A novel relaxation limit. Commun. Math. Sci., 2 (4), 591–626.
Grabowski, W. W., 2001: Coupling cloud processes with the large-scale dynamics using the cloud-resolving convection parameterization (CRCP). J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 978–997.
Grabowski, W. W., 2003: MJO-like coherent structures: Sensitivity simulations using the cloud-resolving convection parameterization (CRCP). J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 847–864.
Grabowski, W. W., , and M. W. Moncrieff, 2004: Moisture–convection feedback in the Tropics. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 3081–3104.
Hendon, H. H., , and B. Liebmann, 1994: Organization of convection within the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 8073–8084.
Holloway, C. E., , and J. D. Neelin, 2009: Moisture vertical structure, column water vapor, and tropical deep convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 1665–1683.
Houze, R. A., Jr., , S. S. Chen, , D. E. Kingsmill, , Y. Serra, , and S. E. Yuter, 2000: Convection over the Pacific warm pool in relation to the atmospheric Kelvin–Rossby wave. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 3058–3089.
Khouider, B., , and A. J. Majda, 2006: A simple multicloud parameterization for convectively coupled tropical waves. Part I: Linear analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1308–1323.
Khouider, B., , and A. J. Majda, 2007: A simple multicloud parameterization for convectively coupled tropical waves. Part II: Nonlinear simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 381–400.
Khouider, B., , and A. J. Majda, 2008a: Equatorial convectively coupled waves in a simple multicloud model. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 3376–3397.
Khouider, B., , and A. J. Majda, 2008b: Multicloud models for organized tropical convection: Enhanced congestus heating. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 895–914.
Khouider, B., , A. St-Cyr, , A. J. Majda, , and J. Tribbia, 2011: The MJO and convectively coupled waves in a coarse-resolution GCM with a simple multicloud parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 240–264.
Kikuchi, K., , and Y. N. Takayabu, 2004: The development of organized convection associated with the MJO during TOGA COARE IOP: Trimodal characteristics. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L10101, doi:10.1029/2004GL019601.
Kiladis, G. N., , K. H. Straub, , and P. T. Haertel, 2005: Zonal and vertical structure of the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2790–2809.
Kiladis, G. N., , M. C. Wheeler, , P. T. Haertel, , K. H. Straub, , and P. E. Roundy, 2009: Convectively coupled equatorial waves. Rev. Geophys., 47, RG2003, doi:10.1029/2008RG000266.
Lau, K. M., , and P. H. Chan, 1985: Aspects of the 40–50 day oscillation during the northern winter as inferred from outgoing longwave radiation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 1889–1909.
Lau, W. K. M., , and D. E. Waliser, Eds., 2005: Intraseasonal Variability in the Atmosphere–Ocean Climate System. Springer, 436 pp.
Lin, J.-L., and Coauthors, 2006: Tropical intraseasonal variability in 14 IPCC AR4 climate models. Part I: Convective signals. J. Climate, 19, 2665–2690.
Lin, X., , and R. H. Johnson, 1996: Kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics of the flow over the western Pacific warm pool during TOGA COARE. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 695–715.
Madden, R. A., , and P. R. Julian, 1971: Detection of a 40–50 day oscillation in the zonal wind in the tropical Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 702–708.
Madden, R. A., , and P. R. Julian, 1972: Description of global-scale circulation cells in the Tropics with a 40–50 day period. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1109–1123.
Madden, R. A., , and P. R. Julian, 1994: Observations of the 40–50-day tropical oscillation—A review. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 814–837.
Majda, A. J., 2003: Introduction to PDEs and Waves for the Atmosphere and Ocean. Vol. 9, Courant Lecture Notes in Mathematics, American Mathematical Society, x + 234 pp.
Majda, A. J., , and J. A. Biello, 2004: A multiscale model for the intraseasonal oscillation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101, 4736–4741.
Majda, A. J., , and S. N. Stechmann, 2009a: A simple dynamical model with features of convective momentum transport. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 373–392.
Majda, A. J., , and S. N. Stechmann, 2009b: The skeleton of tropical intraseasonal oscillations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 8417–8422.
Majda, A. J., , S. N. Stechmann, , and B. Khouider, 2007: Madden–Julian Oscillation analog and intraseasonal variability in a multicloud model above the equator. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 9919–9924.
Maloney, E. D., , and D. L. Hartmann, 1998: Frictional moisture convergence in a composite life cycle of the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 11, 2387–2403.
Masunaga, H., , T. L’Ecuyer, , and C. Kummerow, 2006: The Madden–Julian oscillation recorded in early observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2777–2794.
Moncrieff, M. W., 2004: Analytic representation of the large-scale organization of tropical convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 1521–1538.
Moncrieff, M. W., , and E. Klinker, 1997: Organized convective systems in the tropical western Pacific as a process in general circulation models: A TOGA COARE case-study. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123, 805–827.
Myers, D., , and D. Waliser, 2003: Three-dimensional water vapor and cloud variations associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation during Northern Hemisphere winter. J. Climate, 16, 929–950.
Nakazawa, T., 1988: Tropical super clusters within intraseasonal variations over the western Pacific. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 66, 823–839.
Neelin, J. D., , I. M. Held, , and K. H. Cook, 1987: Evaporation–wind feedback and low-frequency variability in the tropical atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 2341–2348.
Salby, M., , and H. Hendon, 1994: Intraseasonal behavior of clouds, temperature, and motion in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 2207–2224.
Salby, M., , R. R. Garcia, , and H. H. Hendon, 1994: Planetary-scale circulations in the presence of climatological and wave-induced heating. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 2344–2367.
Sobel, A. H., , J. Nilsson, , and L. M. Polvani, 2001: The weak temperature gradient approximation and balanced tropical moisture waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 3650–3665.
Sobel, A. H., , E. D. Maloney, , G. Bellon, , and D. M. Frierson, 2008: The role of surface heat fluxes in tropical intraseasonal oscillations. Nat. Geosci., 1, 653–657.
Sobel, A. H., , E. D. Maloney, , G. Bellon, , and D. M. Frierson, 2010: Surface fluxes and tropical intraseasonal variability: A reassessment. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 2 (2), doi:10.3894/JAMES.2010.2.2.
Thayer-Calder, K., , and D. Randall, 2009: The role of convective moistening in the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 3297–3312.
Tian, B., , D. Waliser, , E. Fetzer, , B. Lambrigtsen, , Y. Yung, , and B. Wang, 2006: Vertical moist thermodynamic structure and spatial–temporal evolution of the MJO in AIRS observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2462–2485.
Tompkins, A. M., 2001: Organization of tropical convection in low vertical wind shears: The role of water vapor. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 529–545.
Tung, W., , and M. Yanai, 2002a: Convective momentum transport observed during the TOGA COARE IOP. Part I: General features. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 1857–1871.
Tung, W., , and M. Yanai, 2002b: Convective momentum transport observed during the TOGA COARE IOP. Part II: Case studies. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 2535–2549.
Waite, M. L., , and B. Khouider, 2010: The deepening of tropical convection by congestus preconditioning. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 2601–2615.
Wang, B., , and H. Rui, 1990: Dynamics of the coupled moist Kelvin–Rossby wave on an equatorial beta-plane. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 397–413.
Wheeler, M., , and G. N. Kiladis, 1999: Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the wavenumber–frequency domain. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 374–399.
Yanai, M., , B. Chen, , and W.-W. Tung, 2000: The Madden–Julian oscillation observed during the TOGA COARE IOP: Global view. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2374–2396.
Zhang, C., , and H. H. Hendon, 1997: Propagating and standing components of the intraseasonal oscillation in tropical convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 741–752.