This study was carried out as part of the German Research Foundation (DFG) Priority Program SPP 1276 “MetStröm: Multiple Scales in Fluid Mechanics and Meteorology.” We acknowledge the support of Tobias Hahn, Björn Rocker, and Vincent Heuveline of the Institute of Applied and Numerical Mathematics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, for assistance in implementing the model on graphics hardware. This study benefitted from discussions with Huw Davies. We are grateful to Pat Harr, Chris Rozoff, and an anonymous reviewer for their helpful comments on a previous version of the manuscript.
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