The author thanks three anonymous reviewers. Their constructive comments greatly improved the paper. The computation of LGM and CTL simulations that gave a basis of the analysis in this paper was performed on the Earth Simulator of the JAMSTEC. A part of this work was performed when author Shigenori Murakami was at the Frontier Research Center for Global Change of JAMSTEC.
Braconnot, P., and Coauthors 2007: Results of PMIP2 coupled simulations of the mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum—Part 1: Experiments and large-scale features. Climate Past, 3 , 261–277.
Dong, B., , and P. J. Valdes, 1998: Simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum climate using a general circulation model: Prescribed versus computed sea surface temperatures. Climate Dyn., 14 , 571–591.
Dopplick, T. G., 1971: The energetics of the lower stratosphere including radiative effects. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 97 , 209–237.
Hall, N. M., , B. Dong, , and P. J. Valdes, 1996: Atmospheric equilibrium, instability and energy transport at the Last Glacial Maximum. Climate Dyn., 12 , 497–511.
Hasumi, H., , and S. Emori, 2004: K-1 coupled model (MIROC) description. K-1 Tech. Rep. 1, Center for Climate System Research, University of Tokyo, 34 pp. [Available online at http://www.ccsr.u-tokyo.ac.jp/kyosei/hasumi/MIROC/tech-repo.pdf].
Hernandez-Deckers, D., , and J.-S. von Storch, 2010: Energetics responses to increases in greenhouse gas concentration. J. Climate, 23 , 3874–3887.
Hewitt, C. D., , A. J. Broccoli, , J. F. B. Mitchell, , and R. J. Stouffer, 2001: A coupled model study of the Last Glacial Maximum: Was part of the North Atlantic relatively warm? Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 , 1571–1574.
Holopainen, E. O., 1978: A diagnostic study on the kinetic energy balance of the long-term mean flow and the associated transient fluctuation in the atmosphere. Geophysica, 15 , 125–145.
Joussaume, S., , and K. E. Taylor, 2000: The paleoclimate modeling intercomparison project. Proc. Third PMIP Workshop, Geneva, Switzerland, WMO, 9–24. [Available online at http://pmip.lsce.ipsl.fr/publications/local/wcrp111_009.html].
Kageyama, M., , P. Valdes, , G. Ramstein, , C. Hewitt, , and U. Wyputta, 1999: Northern Hemisphere storm tracks in present day and Last Glacial Maximum climate simulations: A comparison of the European PMIP models. J. Climate, 12 , 742–760.
Kitoh, A., , and S. Murakami, 2002: Tropical Pacific climate at the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum simulated by a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model. Paleoceanography, 17 , 1047. doi:10.1029/2001PA000724.
Kitoh, A., , S. Murakami, , and H. Koide, 2001: A simulation of the Last Glacial Maximum with a coupled atmosphere–ocean GCM. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 , 2221–2224.
Laîné, A., and Coauthors 2009: Northern Hemisphere storm tracks during the last glacial maximum in the PMIP2 ocean–atmosphere coupled models: Energetic study, seasonal cycle, precipitation. Climate Dyn., 32 , 593–614. doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0391-9.
Lee, Y.-H., , and T.-C. Chen, 1986: Structure and energetics of standing eddies in the winter Northern Hemisphere simulated by the NCAR community climate model and the GLA climate model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114 , 2057–2077.
Li, C., , and D. S. Battisti, 2008: Reduced Atlantic storminess during the Last Glacial Maximum: Evidence from a coupled climate model. J. Climate, 21 , 3561–3579.
Manabe, S., , and A. J. Broccoli, 1985: The influence of continental ice sheets on the climate of an ice age. J. Geophys. Res., 90 , 2167–2190.
Murakami, S., 2011: Atmospheric local energetics and energy interactions between mean and eddy fields. Part I: Theory. J. Atmos. Sci., in press.
Murakami, S., , R. Ohgaito, , A. Abe-Ouchi, , M. Crucifix, , and B. L. Otto-Bliesner, 2008: Global-scale energy and freshwater balance in glacial climate: A comparison of three PMIP2 LGM simulations. J. Climate, 21 , 5008–5033.
Otto-Bliesner, B., , E. C. Brady, , G. Clauzet, , R. Tomas, , S. Levis, , and Z. Kothalava, 2006: Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene climate in CCSM3. J. Climate, 19 , 2526–2544.
Williams, J., , R. G. Barry, , and W. M. Washington, 1974: Simulation of the atmospheric circulation using the NCAR global circulation model with ice age boundary conditions. J. Appl. Meteor., 13 , 305–317.