Thanks to the anonymous reviewers whose feedback contributed to the revision of this paper. The lead author is supported by NSF Grant ATM-0947837. Dr. Gang Chen is supported by NSF Grant AGS-1064079. Dr. Jian Lu is supported by NSF Grant AGS-1064045.
Benedict, J. J., S. Lee, and S. B. Feldstein, 2004: Synoptic view of the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 121–144.
Butchart, N., and E. E. Remsberg, 1986: The area of the stratospheric polar vortex as a diagnostic for tracer transport on an isentropic surface. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 1319–1339.
Dritschel, D. G., and M. E. McIntyre, 2008: Multiple jets as PV staircases: The Phillips effect and the resilience of eddy-transport barriers. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 855–874.
Esler, J. G., and P. H. Haynes, 1999: Baroclinic wave breaking and the internal variability of the tropospheric circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 4014–4031.
Killworth, P. D., and M. E. McIntyre, 1985: Do Rossby-wave critical layers absorb, reflect or over-reflect? J. Fluid Mech., 161, 449–492.
Magnusdottir, G., and P. H. Haynes, 1996: Wave activity diagnostics applied to baroclinic wave life cycles. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 2317–2353.
Nakamura, N., and A. Solomon, 2010: Finite-amplitude wave activity and mean flow adjustments in the atmospheric general circulation. Part I: Quasigeostophic theory and analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 3967–3983.
Nakamura, N., and D. Zhu, 2010a: Finite-amplitude wave activity and diffusive flux of potential vorticity in eddy–mean flow interactions. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 2701–2716.
Nakamura, N., and D. Zhu, 2010b: Formation of jets through mixing and forcing of potential vorticity: Analysis and parameterization of beta-plane turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 2717–2733.
Pfeffer, R. L., 1987: Comparison of conventional and transformed Eulerian diagnostics in the troposphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113, 237–254.
Polvani, L. M., and J. G. Esler, 2007: Transport and mixing of chemical air masses in idealized baroclinic life cycles. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D23102, doi:10.1029/2007JD008555.
Riviere, G., and I. Orlanski, 2007: Characteristics of the Atlantic storm-track eddy activity and its relation with the North Atlantic oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 241–266.
Simmons, A. J., and B. J. Hoskins, 1980: Barotropic influences on the growth and decay of nonlinear baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 1679–1684.
Solomon, A., and N. Nakamura, 2012: An exact Lagrangian-mean wave activity for finite-amplitude disturbances to barotropic flow on a sphere. J. Fluid Mech., 693, 69–92.
Thorncroft, C. D., B. J. Hoskins, and M. E. McIntyre, 1993: Two paradigms of baroclinic-wave life-cycle behaviour. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119, 17–55.
Vallis, G. K., E. P. Gerber, P. J. Kushner, and B. A. Cash, 2004: A mechanism and simple model of the North Atlantic oscillation and annular modes. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 264–280.