We thank Dr. Wei Zhao for his assistance in the model simulations of Hurricane Frances, and Drs. Ralph Foster, Peter Sullivan, Jim Price, and Brandon Kerns for their insightful discussions during the course of this study. The GPS dropsonde data were collected and supported by the NOAA Aircraft Operations Center and Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab during the CBLAST field campaign. Comments and suggestions from three anonymous reviewers helped improve the manuscript significantly. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research under the research grant of CBLAST Hurricane Program (N00014-01-1-0156) and a NOAA research grant (NA10NWS4680013).
Anthes, R. A., , and S. W. Chang, 1978: Response of hurricane boundary layer to change of sea surface temperature in a numerical model. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 1240–1255.
Bao, J.-W., , J. M. Wilczak, , J.-K. Choi, , and L. H. Kantha, 2000: Numerical simulations of air–sea interaction under high wind conditions using a coupled model: A study of hurricane development. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 2190–2210.
Bender, M., , and I. Ginis, 2000: Real-case simulations of hurricane–ocean interaction using a high-resolution coupled model: Effects on hurricane intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 917–946.
Beven, J. L., 2004: Tropical cyclone report: Hurricane Frances; 25 August - 8 September 2004. NOAA Rep. [Available online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/2004frances.shtml.]
Black, M. L., , J. F. Gamache, , F. D. Marks Jr., , C. E. Samsury, , and H. E. Willoughby, 2002: Eastern Pacific Hurricanes Jimena of 1991 and Olivia of 1994: The effect of vertical shear on structure and intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 2291–2312.
Black, P. G., and Coauthors, 2007: Air–sea exchange in hurricanes: Synthesis of observations from Coupled Boundary Layer Air–Sea Transfer experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 357–374.
Chen, S. S., , W. Zhao, , J. E. Tenerelli, , R. H. Evans, , and V. Halliwell, 2001: Impact of the AVHRR sea surface temperature on atmospheric forcing in the Japan/East Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 4539–4542.
Chen, S. S., , J. F. Price, , W. Zhao, , M. A. Donelan, , and E. J. Walsh, 2007: The CBLAST-Hurricane Program and the next-generation fully coupled atmosphere–wave–ocean models for hurricane research and prediction. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 311–317.
Chen, S. S., , W. Zhao, , M. A. Donelan, , and H. L. Tolman, 2012: Directional wind-wave coupling in fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean models: Results from CBLAST-Hurricane. J. Atmos. Sci., submitted.
Donelan, M. A., , B. K. Haus, , N. Reul, , W. J. Plant, , M. Stiassne, , H. C. Graber, , O. B. Brown, , and E. S. Saltzman, 2004: On the limiting aerodynamic roughness of the ocean in very strong winds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18306, doi:10.1029/2004GL019460.
Dudhia, J., 1993: A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State–NCAR mesoscale model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 1493–1513.
Emanuel, K. A., 1986: An air–sea interaction theory for tropical cyclones. Part I: Steady-state maintenance. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 585–605.
Garratt, J. R., 1992: The Atmosphere Boundary Layer. Cambridge University Press, 316 pp.
Grell, G. A., , J. Dudhia, , and D. R. Stauffer, 1994: A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398+STR, 122 pp.
Kain, J. S., , and J. M. Fritsch, 1993. Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: The Kain–Fritsch scheme. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, Meteor. Monogr., No. 46, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 165–170.
Kepert, J. D., 2001: The dynamics of boundary layer jets within the tropical cyclone core. Part I: Linear theory. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 2469–2484.
Kepert, J. D., 2006a: Observed boundary layer wind structure and balance in the hurricane core. Part I: Hurricane Georges. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2169–2193.
Kepert, J. D., 2006b: Observed boundary layer wind structure and balance in the hurricane core. Part II: Hurricane Mitch. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2194–2211.
Kepert, J. D., 2010: Comparing slab- and height-resolving models of the tropical cyclone boundary layer. Part I: Comparing the simulations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 136, 1689–1699, doi:10.1002/qj.667.
Kepert, J. D., , and Y. Wang, 2001: The dynamics of boundary layer jets within the tropical cyclone core. Part II: Nonlinear enhancement. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 2485–2501.
Lee, C.-Y., 2012: Energetic impacts of stable boundary layer on tropical cyclone structure in coupled WRF model. Preprints, 30th Conf. on Hurricane and Tropical Meteorology, Ponte Vedra Beach, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 5D4. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/30Hurricane/webprogram/Paper206196.html.]
Levitus, S., , and T. P. Boyer, 1994: Temperature. Vol. 4, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4, 117 pp.
Levitus, S., , R. Burgett, , and T. P Boyer, 1994: Salinity. Vol. 3, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3, 99 pp.
Montgomery, M. T., , H. D. Snell, , and Z. Yang, 2001: Axisymmetric spindown dynamics of hurricane-like vortices. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 421–435.
Pendergrass, A. G., , and H. E. Willoughby, 2009: Diabatically induced secondary flows in tropical cyclones. Part I: Quasi-steady forcing. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 805–821.
Powell, M. D., 1990: Boundary layer structure and dynamics in outer hurricane rainbands. Part II: Downdraft modification and mixed layer recovery. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 918–938.
Price, J. F., , T. B. Sanford, , and G. Z. Forristall, 1994: Forced stage response to a moving hurricane. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 233–260.
Rosenthal, S. L., 1962: A theoretical analysis of the field of motion in the hurricane boundary layer. National Hurricane Research Project Rep. 56, 12 pp.
Rotunno, R., , and K. A. Emanuel, 1987: An air–sea interaction theory for tropical cyclones. Part II: Evolutionary study using a nonhydrostatic axisymmetric numerical model. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 542–561.
Schade, L. R., , and K. A. Emanuel, 1999: The ocean’s effect on the intensity of tropical cyclones: Results from a simple coupled atmosphere–ocean model. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 642–651.
Schwendike, J., , and J. D. Kepert, 2008: The boundary layer winds in Hurricane Danielle (1998) and Isabel (2003). Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 3168–3191.
Smith, R. K., , M. T. Montgomery, , and N. V. Sang, 2009: Tropical cyclone spin-up revisited. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 135, 1321–1335.
Stull, R. B., 1988: An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic, 666 pp.
Tao, W.-K., , and J. Simpson, 1993: The Goddard cumulus ensemble model. Part I: Model description. Terr. Atmos. Oceanic Sci., 4, 19–54.
Tenerelli, J. E., , and S. S. Chen, 2001: High-resolution simulations of Hurricane Floyd using MM5 with vortex-following mesh refinement. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/WAF-NWP-MESO/webprogram/Paper23165.html.]
Tolman, H. L., 1991: A third-generation model for wind waves on slowly varying, unsteady, and inhomogeneous depths and currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21, 782–797.
Tolman, H. L., 1999: User manual and system documentation of WAVEWATCH-III version 1.18. NOAA/NWS/NCEP/OMB Tech. Note 166, 110 pp.
Tolman, H. L., , B. Balasubramaniyan, , L. D. Burroughs, , D. V. Chalikov, , Y. Y. Chao, , H. S. Chen, , and V. M. Gerald, 2002: Development and implementation of wind-generated ocean surface wave models at NCEP. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 311–333.
Wright, C. W., and Coauthors, 2001: Hurricane directional wave spectrum spatial variation in the open ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2472–2488.
Wu, C.-C., , C.-Y. Lee, , and I. I. Lin, 2007: The effect of ocean eddy on tropical cyclone intensity. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 3562–3578.
Zhang, D., , and R. A. Anthes, 1982: A high-resolution model of the planetary boundary layer—Sensitivity tests and comparisons with SESAME-79 data. J. Appl. Meteor., 21, 857–861.
Zhang, J. A., , R. F. Rogers, , D. S. Nolan, , and F. D. Marks Jr., 2011: On the characteristic height scales of the hurricane boundary layer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 2523–2535.