We thank the two anonymous reviews for insightful comments. DMM is supported by a grant from the UK Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC); LJG and SMO are funded by the NERC National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS). The work of SCH and NB was supported by the Joint DECC/Defra Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme (GA01101) and the European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme COMBINE project 226520. PW is supported by a NERC student grant. We would also like to thank the Stratosphere and Climate groups at the Universities of Reading and Oxford for useful discussions.
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This scenario follows an increase in radiative forcing throughout the twenty-first century, which reaches a maximum of 8.5 W m−2 in 2100.
As an aside, little is known at present about how the surface influence from SSWs varies as a function of occurrence within winter. While this analysis is beyond the scope of this study, it should be addressed in the near future.