We thank Matthew Sitkowski and Daniel Stern for helpful discussions that benefitted this work. We gratefully acknowledge Chun-Chieh Wu and two anonymous reviewers for outstanding critical reviews of this manuscript that led to significant improvements. C. Rozoff was supported by ONR Grant N00014-07-1-0163 and NOAA Grants NA06NES4400002 and NA10NES4400013. D. Nolan was supported in part by NSF Grant ATM-0756308. F. Zhang was supported by ONR Grant N000140910526, NOAA HFIP, and NSF Grant 0840651. J. Fang was supported by the Nature Science Foundation of China Grants 40921160382 and 40830958, and State Key Basic Program of China 2009CB421502. The WRF simulation was carried out at the Texas Advanced Computing Center.
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It should be noted that (1) and (2) use ground-relative wind speeds. The storm, on average, moves toward the northwest at 1.8 m s−1 due to the β effect, but a budget for storm-relative winds produces virtually identical results and is therefore not included.
Experimentation of time intervals between 1 and 6 h for the time integration of q and for ΔKE and time lags of 1–6 h between Q and ΔKE yielded similar results.