This study was supported by the Climate Dynamics Program of the National Science Foundation under award AGS-1005599 and the Global Research Laboratory (GRL) Program from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (MEST), South Korea. Additional support was provided by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), by NASA through Grant NNX07AG53G, and by NOAA through Grant NA17RJ1230 through their sponsorship of research activities at the International Pacific Research Center.
Biello, J. A., , A. J. Majda, , and M. W. Moncrieff, 2007: Meridional momentum flux and superrotation in the multi-scale IPESD MJO model. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 1636–1651.
Frierson, D., , A. J. Majda, , and O. Pauluis, 2004: Large-scale dynamics of precipitation fronts in the tropical atmosphere: A novel relaxation limit. Commun. Math. Sci., 2, 591–626.
Hendon, H. H., , and B. Liebmann, 1994: Organization of convection within the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 8073–8084.
Houze, R. A., Jr., , S. S. Chen, , D. E. Kingsmill, , Y. Serra, , and S. E. Yuter, 2000: Convection over the Pacific warm pool in relation to the atmospheric Kelvin–Rossby wave. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 3058–3089.
Hsu, P.-C., , and T. Li, 2012: Role of the boundary layer moisture asymmetry in causing the eastward propagation of the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 25, 4914–4931.
Johnson, R. H., , T. M. Rickenbach, , S. A. Rutledge, , P. E. Ciesielski, , and W. H. Schubert, 1999: Trimodal characteristics of tropical convection. J. Climate, 12, 2397–2418.
Jones, C., , and B. C. Weare, 1996: The role of low-level moisture convergence and ocean latent heat fluxes in the Madden and Julian oscillation: An observational analysis using ISCCP data and ECMWF analyses. J. Climate, 9, 3086–3104.
Khouider, B., , and A. J. Majda, 2006: A simple multicloud parameterization for convectively coupled tropical waves. Part I: Linear analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 1308–1323.
Khouider, B., , and A. J. Majda, 2007: A simple multicloud parameterization for convectively coupled tropical waves. Part II: Nonlinear simulations. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 381–400.
Khouider, B., , and A. J. Majda, 2008: Equatorial convectively coupled waves in a simple multicloud model. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 3376–3397.
Khouider, B., , A. St-Cyr, , A. J. Majda, , and J. Tribbia, 2011: The MJO and convectively coupled waves in a coarse-resolution GCM with a simple multicloud parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 240–264.
Kikuchi, K., , and B. Wang, 2010: Spatiotemporal wavelet transform and the multiscale behavior of the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 23, 3814–3834.
Kiladis, G. N., , K. H. Straub, , and P. T. Haertel, 2005: Zonal and vertical structure of the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2790–2809.
Kiladis, G. N., , M. C. Wheeler, , P. T. Haertel, , K. H. Straub, , and P. E. Roundy, 2009: Convectively coupled equatorial waves. Rev. Geophys., 47, RG2003, doi:10.1029/2008RG000266.
Knutson, T. R., , and K. M. Weickmann, 1987: 30–60-day atmospheric oscillation: Composite life cycles of convection and circulation anomalies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 1407–1436.
Li, T., , and B. Wang, 1994: The influence of sea surface temperature on the tropical intraseasonal oscillation: A numerical study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 2349–2362.
Lin, J., , B. E. Mapes, , M. Zhang, , and M. Newman, 2004: Stratiform precipitation, vertical heating profiles, and the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 296–309.
Liu, F., , and B. Wang, 2011: A model for the interaction between the 2-day waves and moist Kelvin waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 611–625.
Liu, F., , and B. Wang, 2012: Impacts of upscale heat and momentum transfer by moist Kelvin waves on the Madden–Julian oscillation: A theoretical model study. Climate Dyn., doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1281-0, in press.
Liu, F., , G. Huang, , and L. Feng, 2011: Critical roles of convective momentum transfer in sustaining the multi-scale Madden–Julian oscillation. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 108, 471–477, doi:10.1007/s00704-011-0541-6.
Madden, R., , and P. Julian, 1971: Detection of a 40-50 day oscillation in the zonal wind in the tropical Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 702–708.
Madden, R., , and P. Julian, 1972: Description of global-scale circulation cells in the tropics with a 40-50 day period. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 1109–1123.
Majda, A. J., , and J. A. Biello, 2004: A multiscale model for the intraseasonal oscillation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 101, 4736–4741.
Majda, A. J., , and S. N. Stechmann, 2009a: A simple dynamical model with features of convective momentum transport. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 373–392.
Majda, A. J., , and S. N. Stechmann, 2009b: The skeleton of tropical intraseasonal oscillations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 8417–8422.
Majda, A. J., , and S. N. Stechmann, 2011: Nonlinear dynamics and regional variations in the MJO skeleton. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 3053–3071.
Majda, A. J., , S. N. Stechmann, , and B. Khouider, 2007: Madden–Julian oscillation analog and intraseasonal variability in a multicloud model above the equator. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 9919–9924.
Maloney, E. D., , and D. L. Hartmann, 1998: Frictional moisture convergence in a composite life cycle of the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 11, 2387–2403.
Moncrieff, M. W., 2004: Analytic representation of the large-scale organization of tropical convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 1521–1538.
Moskowitz, B. M., , and C. S. Bretherton, 2000: An analysis of frictional feedback on a moist equatorial Kelvin mode. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2188–2206.
Nakazawa, T., 1988: Tropical super clusters within intraseasonal variations over the western Pacific. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 66, 823–839.
Ohuchi, K., , and M. Yamasaki, 1997: Kelvin wave-CISK controlled by surface friction: A possible mechanism of super cloud cluster. Part I: Linear theory. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 75, 497–511.
Rui, H., , and B. Wang, 1990: Development characteristics and dynamic structure of tropical intraseasonal convection anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 357–379.
Salby, M. L., , and H. H. Hendon, 1994: Intraseasonal behavior of clouds, temperature, and motion in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 2207–2224.
Salby, M. L., , R. R. Garcia, , and H. H. Hendon, 1994: Planetary-scale circulations in the presence of climatological and wave-induced heating. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 2344–2367.
Slingo, A., , P. Inness, , R. Neale, , S. Woolnough, , and G.-Y. Yang, 2003: Scale interaction on diurnal to seasonal timescales and their relevance to model systematic errors. Geophys. Ann., 46, 139–155.
Straub, K. H., , and G. N. Kiladis, 2003: Interactions between the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation and higher-frequency tropical wave activity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131, 945–960.
Tian, B., D. E. Waliser, E. J. Fetzer, B. H. Lambrigtsen, Y. L. Yung, and B. Wang, 2006: Vertical moist thermodynamic structure and spatial–temporal evolution of the MJO in AIRS observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2462–2485.
Waite, M. L., , and B. Khouider, 2009: Boundary layer dynamics in a simple model for convectively coupled gravity waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 2780–2795.
Wang, B., , and H. Rui, 1990: Dynamics of the coupled moist Kelvin–Rossby wave on an equatorial beta plane. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 397–413.
Wang, B., , and T. Li, 1994: Convective interaction with boundary layer dynamics in the development of the tropical intraseasonal system. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 1386–1400.
Wang, B., , P. J. Webster, , and H. Teng, 2005: Antecedents and self-induction of active-break South Asian monsoon unraveled by satellites. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L04704, doi:10.1029/2004GL020996.
Wheeler, M., , and G. N. Kiladis, 1999: Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the wavenumber–frequency domain. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 374–399.
Yang, B., , X. Fu, , and B. Wang, 2008: Atmosphere–ocean conditions jointly guide convection of the boreal-summer intraseasonal oscillation: Satellite observations. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D11105, doi:10.1029/2007JD009276.
Yano, J. I., , and K. A. Emanuel, 1991: An improved model of the equatorial troposphere and its coupling to the stratosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 377–389.