This work is supported by ARM–DOE Awards DE-SC0001164/ER-64752 and DE-SC0008452, DYNAMO–NSF Award AGS-1059611, and NASA Awards NNX10AM28G and NNX07AQ89G. The ERA-Interim data are provided by the ECMWF. The authors thank C. Zhang and S. Chen for useful discussions. The authors also thank three anonymous reviewers for their useful suggestions. Stacy Brodzik supported the data management. Beth Tully provided graphics and editorial assistance.
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