The authors are grateful to Rich Rotunno, Chris Bretherton, Carolyn Reynolds, Tony Eckel, and Mark Gingrich for illuminating conversations, and for comments from an anonymous reviewer. D.R.D.’s research was supported by the Office of Naval Research Grant N00014-11-1-0331 and NSF Grant ATM-083616. The second and third authors acknowledge the support of the Chief of Naval Research through Program Element 0601153N of the NRL Base Program.
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As noted previously, the spread in the 850-hPa metric box temperature likely has more significance for predictability than do the specific temperature values for a particular snow forecast, since the FMLP climatology is based on the temperature of the Quillayute sounding (which lies outside the metric box) and the COAMPS 850-hPa temperatures are not corrected for model bias.
700 hPa is selected as the closest standard level to the 850-hPa metric box that generally lies above the terrain.
Sensitivity tests in which the velocity components are first Fourier transformed in the j direction and then averaged in the i direction produce similar results.
The one-dimensional spectrum (such as those plotted in this paper) of white noise is uniform in wavelength, whereas the two-dimensional spectrum of white noise is inversely proportional to the two-dimensional wavelength.
If L ≈ a, the global maximum of